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200 Years of Annual Conferences 

The Church as Stockholder: Discovering Proxy Power 

A Dream Comes True in Virginia 



Presto: A Moth! | Cover Two 



SERMONS beyond numbering have been 
inspired by the wonder of metamorphosis, 
that change of form and function from the ugliness 
of a creepy caterpillar to the iridescent beauty 
of a moth in flight. Here, we are often told, 
is a miracle. But actually this is not a miracle 
for metamorphosis does not defy the God-given 
laws of the universe — the divine order of things 
that holds planets in orbit or causes rainbows to 
appear in a stormy sky. 

Beyond duplication or understanding by man, 
despite his vaunted wisdom and technology, the 
emergence of a moth from its cocoon must 
invariably speak to us of immortality. 

After all, does the caterpillar comprehend the life 
that awaits beyond the shroud of its cocoon? 

One who often ponders such things is 
Lynwood M. Chace of New Bedford, Mass., 
a nature photographer who has devoted many 
years to recording the abundant animal and 
insect life around him. In the pictures above, 
and on this month's cover, he presents stages 
in the development of the Cecropia moth, one of 
the larger, more colorful species among about 
9,000 in North America alone. This moth's flight 
from simulated death in the cocoon never ceases to 
astound Mr. Chace — nor us. Had we not seen it, 
would we believe such things are possible? 

— Herman B. Teeter 


Sin: It's Still With Us 

By John M. Krumm 

IT IS NO indictment of the doctrine of sin that people 
do not like to think about it any more. The real 

question is: Does its teaching correspond to some of 
the perennial questions of life? It is my contention that 
the doctrine of sin is still the peculiar contribution of 
biblical religion to man's understanding of his life. 

Man sins more out of weakness and folly than he 
does out of resolute determination to assert his freedom. 
The Bible suggests that men sin more like silly sheep 
than like heroic Prometheus. 

There is not much opportunity to observe sheep in 
our urban society, but there is no report of their ever 
staging a brilliant defiance of the shepherd's authority. 
They just wander along, heedless of danger, seeing one 
tuft of grass over there that looks better than this tuft 
right here, never looking up to see where they are going, 
and finally ending up on some precipitous mountain 
ledge or in some menacing swamp. 

So we are led along unthinkingly, seeking one satis- 
faction after another, transferring more things from the 
luxury list to the necessity list. All of it is defensible 
except that it leads to an indefensible concentration upon 
self and self-satisfaction in a world crying out for sacrifice 
and renunciation as the prerequisite of meeting its needs. 

So man's sin constitutes a stubborn problem because it 
is never just weakness, but weakness self-righteously 
defended and made into virtue. His weakness might be 
cured — or at least its destructive possibilities mitigated — 
if he would admit it and keep himself sensitive to the 
evidences of it. But the worst part of his sin is that it 
will not let him confess it. He not only goes astray like 
a lost sheep but he insulates himself more and more 
within the walls of his self-esteem. And when God can- 
not reach him or touch him, his condition is desperate 
indeed. This is the tragedy of sin. 

Most people feel, at least occasionally, that they have 
fallen short of what they might have been, but the 
church's language about sin seems to overstate the situa- 

The psalmist says: "Behold, I was shapen in wicked- 
ness, and in sin hath my mother conceived me." That is 
too strong, surely. I make mistakes; I fall short of my 
best; I have my little lapses — but I am not bad through 
and through. To put it briefly, most men would admit 
that they commit sins once in a while, but they would 
not want to be classified permanently under the heading 
of "sinners." 

If a man feels that the Bible and the Christian tradition 
have exaggerated the enormity of his sin, let him recall 
that the most poignant confessions of sin in the Bible 
are usually in the first person plural. 

Although, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as 

Adapted from The Art ol Being a Sinner by John M. 
Krumm. Copyright © 1967 by Seabury Press. Used by 
permission. —Your Editor 

social sin, some of our most deadly sins are committed 
within the context of societies. And if a man has not 
committed any face-to-face sins, he will be well advised 
to ponder what sins have been committed in his name 
and with his consent — or at least without his effective 
protest — by his neighborhood, his social club, his church, 
his city, his nation, his economic class, his racial group. 

Reinhold Niebuhr has called the Christian ethic "an 
impossible ethical ideal." He does not mean, as he 
makes clear again and again, that it is irrelevant. What 
is impossible about it is that it demands an under- 
standing of consequences and a purity of intention which 
man is never capable of mustering. 

More than he ever knows, he acts out of self-regarding 
motives to call attention to himself, to bolster his shaky 
reputation, and to reassure his uncertain ego. The fact 
that even the great heroes of the human race can be 
debunked by subsequent historical research is a sign of 
how deeply infected by sin we all are. 

That is what the Christian tradition has tried to face 
up to in its doctrine of Original Sin. The very fact that 
sin is not a problem we ever overcome, that Sunday 
after Sunday, year after year, we repeat in the church's 
liturgy the acknowledgment of our sins — this means 
that the center of our trouble is right at the heart of 
the person himself. 

The most encouraging sign a man can have that he 
is not altogether lost and hopeless is his dismay over his 
sins. If he were all bad, he would never know it. 

Peter let his remorse and grief lead him to a new 
level of faith and trust in life and in Cod who works 
graciously and redemptively within it. Judas let his re- 
morse and grief lead to self-destruction. What made the 
difference in their answers? 

Being sorry is not, by itself, a healthy or a constructive 
thing. There was nothing hopeful about the kind of 
sorrow Judas experienced. It did nothing to open his 
heart to the forgiveness and mercy of God. Determined 
to the end to keep the resolution of the issues in his 
life in his own hands, he did the one thing self-centered 
men might be expected to do. 

Sin is overcome from outside the self. Only as a man 
turns away from preoccupation with his own spiritual 
illumination and his supposedly superior moral virtue and 
opens his life to the forgiveness of God is he beginning 
to overcome sin. And only if the sinner begins to see 
that the divine resourcefulness can create something out 
of his sin can he ever be persuaded that he can be 
forgiven. Thus, to overcome sin lies only in the power 
of God himself. 

Human existence is strewn with the wreckage of sin. 
Despite it — on the basis of it — new life can arise, be- 
gotten by the divine mercy, nourished by human peni- 
tence, crowned and fulfilled by the gifts which men can 
trust God finally to bestow. This is the Christian faith 
and the Christian hope by which Christian charity gains 
its strength, resiliency, and power. □ 

July 1973 TOGETHER 

Look closely, for this may be the only 
Cecropia moth you will see this Summer, 
though numerous ones may exist in your 
own neighborhood. The reason: Moths do 
most of their flying at dusk or at night and, 
because they are seldom seen, many people 
believe butterflies are more common. How- 
ever, there are about 9,000 kinds of moths 
in North America and fewer than 700 dif- 
ferent kinds of butterflies. For more on the 
Cecropia s life cycle, see Lynwood M. Chace s 
pictures and the text on Cover Two. 


Editorial Director and Editor: 

Curtis A. Chamber! 
Managing Editor: Paige Carlin 
Associate Editors: Herman B. Teeter, 

Helen Johnson, Martha A. Lane, 

James F. Campbell, Sandra Leneau 
Art Editor: Robert C. Goss 
Picture Editor: George P. Miller 
News Editor: John A. Lovelace 
Assistants: Lynda Campo and 

Debra Beachy (news), 

June M. Schwanke (research), 

Debra Davies (production) 
Contributing Editors: James S. Thomas, 

Dale White 
Business-Circulation Manager: 

Warren P. Clark 
Advertising Manager: John H. Fisher 
Fulfillment Manager: Jack /. fnman 
Publisher: John E. Procter 

JULY 1973 



Two Presto: A Moth! 
Herman B. Teeter 

Sin: It's Still With Us 
John M. Krumm 

4 A Memorable Month 
in Mexico 
Color Pictorial 
Martha A. Lane 

10 The Church as Stockholder: 
Discovering Proxy Power 
Interview with 
Florence Little 



The Mud 

Tom H. Forbes 

That First Annual Conference 
Frederick A. Norwood 

20 The Danger of Merging 
Piety and Patriotism 
Mark O. Hatfield 

23 Aisle of Pines 

Pollyanna Sedziol 

24 The Church Goes to the Fair 
Color Pictorial 
Herman B. Teeter 

TOGETHER July 1973 

Vol. XVII. No. 7 Copyright © 1973 
by The United Methodist Publishing House 
TOGETHER is published monthly except com- 
bined issue of August and September by 
The United Methodist Publishing House at 
201 Eighth Ave. S., Nashville, Tenn. 37202, 
where second-class postage has been paid. 
The above address is the location of the 

Business and Subscription Offices (Phone 
[Area 615] 749-6405) end the Advertising 
Office (Phone [Area 615] 749-6141). 
Subscription: $5 a year in advance, single 
copy 50«. TOGETHER CHURCH PUN subscrip- 
tions through United Methodist churches are 
$4 per year, cash in advance, or $1 per 
quarter, billed quarterly. Change of Address: 
Five weeks advance notice is required. Send 

old and new addresses and label from 
current issue to Subscription Office. Adver- 
tising: Write Advertising Office for rates. 
Editorial Submissions: Address all cor- 
respondence to Editorial Office, TOGETHER, 
1661 N. Northwest Hwy., Park Ridge, III. 
60068 (Phone [Area 312] 299-4411). 
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to TOGETHER, 
201 Eighth Ave. S., Nashville, Tenn. 37202. 

7 , W I T I J [ L' 

26 The 2,000th Year 
Leonard C. Yaseen 

29 The Grudge 

Norma J. Brockus 

30 Galilee Church . . . 
A Dream Comes True 
Connie Myer 

34 Thoughts on Salvation 
L. David Harris 

36 Condemned to Contentment 
Margaret Duda 

42 Francis of Assisi: 

Troubadour of Dawn 
Thomas Orrirt Bentz 

48 Do Bumblebees Have Faces? 
Marion Smyth 

49 Begin With Wind 
Evelyn Tooley Hunt 


3 Jottings / 6 News 
19 Say it! 
33 You Asked . . . 
38 Letters 

40 Illustration Credits 
44 Kaleidoscope 
47 Wicked Flea 


Often, as we read manuscripts 
here in the office, we find ourselves 
wondering about the person behind 
the typewritten words. What manner 
of man or woman is the writer? Out 
of what background and experience 
do the words arise? 

There are some clues, for ex- 
ample, about the Rev. L. David Harris 
who takes his place in this month's 
Open Pulpit [page 34] with Thoughts 
on Salvation. One is that he is a 
lay pastor, not fully ordained as most 
Open Pulpit contributors are. He also 
is a cancer patient. 

Mr. Harris tells us that his sermon 
was written and delivered about a 
month after he was discharged from 
the hospital; that his church members 
held a 24-hour vigil in his behalf 
when he was seriously ill. 

Otherwise, the sermon won't tell 
you a great deal about Mr. Harris 
himself. His background, we discover, 
is more than extensive — it is a little 
short of astounding. 

He has been a pastor since 1959, 
then in the Evangelical United 
Brethren Church. 

He has been a newspaperman — a 
reporter, columnist, music critic. He 
has been a teacher of English (mass 
media, journalism, communications) 
in two colleges. He has been the as- 
sistant administrator of a hospital 
and a student of psychiatry in a 
medical center. He has worked with 
several major circuses, contributed to 
numerous newspapers and maga- 
zines, and has studied various sub- 
jects at ten different schools. 

His adventures, particularly in 
newspaper work, have been many. 
"I've been in the middle of shoot-out 
police chases of escaped convicts," 
Mr. Harris tells us. "I've gone on 
midnight wild-goose chases through 
the wilderness searching for reported 
UFO landings. I've interviewed presi- 
dential candidates and presidents 
and played trumpet in rock groups. 

"I've seen my wife kissed by the 
Lone Ranger. On a free-lance assign- 
ment I was mugged by the Mafia . . . 
and subsequently gave up the idea 
of writing about them." 

Not as exciting, perhaps, but even 
closer to his heart are his adventures 
in friendship with circus people. 
"Many dear friends are circus per- 
formers," he says. "They often live 
with us for periods of time. Our back- 
yard may be filled with trained dogs, 
chimpanzees, magicians' rabbits, uni- 

cycles, trapeze apparatus . . . We 
love it." 

All of which leads us to the project 
he hopes to have under way this 
summer — The Circus Kingdom, a Key 
73 project of the Council on Ministries 
of United Methodism's Central Penn- 
sylvania Conference. The Circus 
Kingdom is a traveling, ecumenical, 
interracial Christian community dedi- 
cated to love, peace, brotherhood, 
and sharing of religious faiths on a 
day-to-day basis. 

So, in case you are in Dover, Pa., 
this summer, don't be surprised if 
you find talented performers working 
entirely because of religious motiva- 
tions, singing in churches, clowning 
in orphanages, juggling in jails, 
marching down Main Street, doing 
acrobatics in parking lots, discussing 
social issues with local residents — in 
general, getting involved. Which, by 
the way, is what Key 73 — and Mr. 
Harris himself — is all about. 

Since his article on page 14 is out 
of his own experience, we could 
guess a little more accurately about 
the backround of Tom H. Forbes, the 

He is indeed a farmer. The old 
bulldozer he tells about in The Mud 
was "still skipping beautifully" when 
he sold it a couple of years ago. 

At 38, he doesn't confine his 
activities to farming. He likes to hunt, 
hike, paint, take pictures, and write. 
He's a Presbyterian elder and lay 
minister, and the farm life he has 
known — and loves — provides the 
background for many of his stories, 
pictorial essays, and poetry. 

— Your Editors 

July 1973 TOGETHER 

They knew almost no Spanish. Only two ever had 
traveled outside the U.S. Still, these United Methodist teen-agers had 

cmomblc Alonf h in Atcxico 

HE WAS A busy family physician, and the last way 
he wanted to spend his 1972 vacation was with 
16 teen-agers on a month-long work project in 
Mexico. He carefully explained all that to his family, but 
four months later Dr. Carl E. Crimm was flying south of 
the border — and he had such a good experience that 
now he urges other adults to volunteer for similar projects. 

Dr. Crimm's teen-agers were a group from the Virginia 
Conference of The United Methodist Church. They paid 
their own way to Mexico so they could reroof an old 
church. They spent a few days sight-seeing in Mexico 
City, then headed for the tourist town of Guanajuato, 
population 23,000. 

A few years ago a Methodist minister had taken over a 
condemned building located between two Roman 
Catholic churches in Guanajuato. Now he has a Protestant 
congregation of 25 to 30 members. The Virginians were 
to tear the ancient roof off the whitewashed adobe 
church's social hall and put on a new one. 

The group's headquarters while in Guanajuato was an 
old elementary school. They sacked out on its floor in 
sleeping bags each night, cooked their meals there by 
day. The young people took turns roofing, cooking, and 
shopping in the city's open-air market — where they relied 
on halting Spanish and hand signals to negotiate their 

"You can't imagine the determination of the group to 
finish their project," Dr. Crimm reports. "They worked 
ten hours a day at hard physical labor. Girls mixed con- 
crete and boys carried it in 100-pound loads up a two- 
story ramp. I remember the pastor on the last day saying, 
'God must be helping us.' " 

When they had completed as much of the project as 
they could do, the Virginians did a little more sight- 
seeing in Acapulco before heading home. 

In some ways, the work project was the most insig- 
nificant part of the trip, Dr. Crimm says in" retrospect. 
What will mean the most to the young people in the 
years ahead, he thinks, is what they learned about living 
and working together as a Christian community. "We tried 
to give them some idea of what Christian concern for 
your brother means," says Dr. Crimm. "Even if he doesn't 
have as much money as you, he's still your equal." 

Phase two of this conference-to-conference, nation-to- 
nation project will take place late in July when a group 
of Mexican young people will arrive in Virginia. Their 
month-long work project will include building some tree 
houses at a church camp and working in an inner-city 
day-care center. Several of the young Virginians who 
traveled to Mexico last year have volunteered to live with 
the Mexican teen-agers during their stay in this country. 

— Martha A. Lane 

Girls helped mix the concrete, but 

carrying it up a two-story ramp to the roof was left to 
young men. This is Mike Painter, 18, shouldering 
about 100 pounds of wet concrete. 

io-ti TnriTutD 

The young Virginians' work project was to rerooi the social hall of Guanajuato's 
little Methodist church (above right). After removing the old roof, the teen-agers and their Mexican 
fellow laborers (below) made wooden forms, laid some metal, then poured the concrete. Kathi Clements 
(above left) is stuffing paper into cracks in the forms to keep concrete from running through. 











At the invitation of Holy Family Catholic Church, the choir 
of Aldersgate United Methodist Church recently sang for a 
Sunday-morning service in the sanctuary of its Minneapolis 
neighbor. Catholic leaders reportedly wanted to show their 
congregation how a choral program can add to the worship 
service and to inspire interest among their parishioners for 
Holy Family's choral program. 

Nominated — tantamount to election—as executive secretary of 
United Methodism's new Joint Committee on Communications (JCC) 
is Dr. Curtis A. Chambers, editor of Together since 1969 and, 
since 1972, editorial director of general church periodicals. 
Out of 27 active candidates he was the choice of the committee 
itself to head a staff coming from formerly separate agencies 
specializing in news, television, radio, film, and interpretation. 
His nomination is subject to action by the General Council on 
Ministries which expected to complete a mail ballot by June 15. 
JCC headquarters are expected to be established for one year in 
Evanston, 111., then to be moved to Dayton, Ohio. 

At its spring meeting the committee designated United Methodist 
Communications as its marketing name, reviewed its relationships 
with other agencies which it must serve as the denomination's 
communications coordinating agency, and adopted a message saying 
that it "cannot ignore policies of the church, the state, or the 
public that impinge upon its ability to communicate the United 
Methodist message effectively." 

A group which owes its 1916 birth to a Methodist campus minister's 
wife was to hold its National Council of Chapters June 18-23 
at Scarritt College for Christian Workers in Nashville, Tenn. 
The Kappa Phi Club is identified as an organization for university 
Christian women. Mrs. Gordon B. Thompson is credited with 
organizing the club in Lawrence, Kans., to enrich the spiritual 
lives of Methodist women on the Kansas University campus. No 
longer related to Methodism, the club nonetheless provides some 
financial assistance to selected United Methodist projects. 
Kappa Phi holds a National Council of Chapters every two years, 
attended by delegates from 25 college chapters, several 
alumnae chapters, and alumnae-at-large. 

1Q71 Tnr.PTKFP 







Dr. Harry C. Spencer wi 1 1 retire in October after more than 21 
years as a staff leader, first in Methodist and then in United 
Methodist radio, television, and film communications ... .Dr . 
Eugene L. Smith returned to the pastorate in Denville, N.J., in 
June after 2h years of national and international denominational 
and ecumenical service, the last 9 as executive secretary of the 
World Council of Churches' New York Of f ice. . . .Top award winners 
from the Associated Church Press were the Rev. Judy Weidman of 
The Texas Methodist, the Rev. William C. Henzl i k of the 
Christian Advocate, and the Rev. Robert H. Bolton for an article 
in Face-to-Face. . . .The leader of one multiracial political party 
in Rhodesia recently said that United Methodist Bishop Abel 
T. Muzorewa "is all that is standing between this country and 
a bloody holocaust." The bishop heads the African National 
Council which opposes policies of the white-minority Ian Smith 
government. A New York Times analysis said Bishop Muzorewa 
represents Rhodesia's best hope for a peaceful racial settlement. 

In four years the United Methodist missionary force overseas 
has dropped from 1,300 to 950. And unless a lack of funds and 
attrition of personnel are stopped, the number could drop to 
885 by the end of 1973, well below the 922 established by the 
Board of Global Ministries' World Division to fill the number 
of places "where missionaries are needed." To try to stem the 
drop, the division has initiated a new emphasis on General 
Advance Specials, the method by which churches and individuals 
can designate special gifts to home and overseas missions and 
to relief. Division support from that source has dropped from 
%k million to $3.3 million annually in the past four years. 
Some $k.k million is needed in 1973 to support the 922 
positions without a deficit. In 1972 the division had a 
deficit of $650,000 in missionary support. Division officials 
said that various reasons such as increasing leadership by 
nationals and the fact that some countries are. closing to 
missionaries have caused the decline. But in 1972, they 
added, the main reason was lack of funds. 

Some 40,000 United Methodist churches, conferences, boards, 
agencies, and institutions and their tens of thousands of 
full-time employees are eligible for insurance coverage under 
a new program announced by the Council on Finance and 
Administration (CFA) . The first program offered provides 
general casualty (fire, theft, bonding, liability) and 
workmen's compensation to the churches and institutions. In 
mid-May some 175,000 promotional letters went out across the 
church announcing this new program. To be announced officially 
June 28 are two further programs for individuals — property 
coverage for homeowners, tenants, car or boat owners, and 
personal insurance such as life, hospitalization, disability, 
and tax-sheltered annuities. 

The 1972 General Conference authorized the CFA to develop 
and market the insurance programs. CFA, on a bid basis, 
retained the New York insurance brokerage firm of Frank B. 
Hall & Co. The brokerage firm, in turn, has submitted 
specifications to insurance companies for their bids on specific 
coverages. The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company will 
underwrite the casualty and workmen's compensation program. 
Dividends, based on the company's entire experience and not 
solely on its United Methodist program, are payable to the 
insured or may be assigned by the church, conference, or 
agency to an insurance trust fund which the CFA will administer. 
That fund will be used churchwide to help churches reduce their 
loss exposure through such devices as safety bars on windows 

July 1973 TOGETHER 





or sprinkler alarm systems. Companies to underwrite the 
personal coverages are being screened by the brokerage firm and 
will be recommended to the CFA. 

General Treasurer R. Bryan Brawner said he believes this is 
the first national insurance program entered into by a 
denomination. Coverage is voluntary on the part of the church 
and/or individual, but no United Methodist church may be 
excluded from coverage nor may its coverage by cancelled because 
of adverse loss experience. Several annual conferences also 
offer similar insurance, and churches and institutions are 
expected to be given their choice. 

A large increase in the number of women registering to attend 
the United Methodist National Conference of the Laity may push 
the expected audience to 5,000 capacity. The conference, 
scheduled for July 13-15 at Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Ind., is attracting more women than ever, say officials of the 
Board of Di scipleship. The quadrennial conference was formerly 
a United Methodist Men's conference. 

Busy executive types are back in their suites, stockholders are 
back at their desks or their mops, and the annua 1 -meet i ng season 
is ended with several U.S. corporations having successfully 
staved off challenges by religious groups. True? Only partially. 

One man who sees it differently is Frank P. White, United 
Church of Christ layman and director of the National Council of 
Churches' Corporate Information Center (CIC). "The most 
significant aspect of the churches' challenge," Mr. White told 
Together , "is that the church was able to bring some input 
into the business world about its concern, basically moral and 
ethical, about how corporate decisions affect people. The 
corporations now are very much aware that the church is there 
and is beginning to move. 

"Last year (1972) three companies, for the first time, wanted 
to negotiate with the churches after church groups initiated 
proxy resolutions calling some corporate practices into question. 
This year nine companies negotiated with church groups. So 
dialogues are beg inning--and increasing--wi th the corporations 
in terms of social issues. CIC has received one explicit and 
some implicit suggestions from companies that they might call 
in some church groups and talk about ethical and moral 
decisions before the companies make some moves. This consultant 
relationship isn't going to happen right away, but I'm not sure 
that it couldn't happen. 

"The most important thing is that the church sees itself and 
is seen by other institutions as a moral and ethical force. 
The church groups' appearances at the annual meetings did raise 
the level of consciousness of people about the church." 

Ironically, Mr. White confirmed that just as the CIC has 
achieved some of its greatest successes, its own future is 
uncertain. The Division of Church and Society, of which it has 
been a part in the NCC structure, is drastically reducing 
executive staff because of financial decreases. It has been 
recommended that CIC become either a new full-fledged 
commission of the NCC or that it become attached directly to 
the general secretary's office. Mr. White said the CIC 
staff is organizing a "traveling road show" to make financial 
appeals directly to NCC-member denominations and that some 
marketing and investment firms had offered time and materials 
to help stage the CIC appeal. A decision on locating the CIC 
could come at the NCC Governing Board's executive committee 
meeting June 13. 

For more on churches and investments see The Church as 
Stockholder: Discovering Proxy Power (page 10) . 

lulv 1973 TOGETHER 



HOW DO YOU huc a miLLion KIDS? 

United Methodists are serving more than a million children in 1,195 institutions in almost every 
state in the U.S.A. and 32 other countries, through programs supported by General Advance 
Specials. These programs of aid to orphans, to homeless, displaced and impoverished children 
are an important part of the mission outreach of the church. For all children we want the possi- 
bility of a worthwhile life, enriched by spiritual growth. In this program, 100% of what you give 
goes directly to the institution that is serving the child. None is used for promotion or admin- 

Your support can go directly to help a child 
in one of the following areas that you can 

For $13 a month a young person can be cared for on 
a scholarship at the Lourenco Marques Christian 
Hostel in Mozambique. 

In Cedartown, Georgia, the Sarah D. Murphy Home 
is caring for 32 troubled children, even though the 
capacity is only for 21. There is a waiting list of 21. 
Any gift from $1 to $500 will help build a new facility 
to replace its worn-out building. 

For $13 a month you can provide room, board and 
education for an Arab youth in the Gaza Strip, Israel. 

Information is available on further opportuni- 
ties for choice. Write to the address on the 
coupon . 

The United Methodist Child Support Program is an 
official program of the General Board of Global Minis- 
tries with all child care institutions approved as General 
Advance Specials. 

Please send your gift through your local Church, Annual 
Conference or direct to 


Room 1439 

475 Riverside Drive 

New York, N. Y. 10027 

YES, I want to HUG A MILLION KIDS and would like to 
designate my gift, as a General Advance Special, to be 
used in one of the following priority areas of need. 

□ Lourenco Marques Hostel, Mozambique (World) 

□ Sarah D. Murphy Home, Cedartown, Ga. (National) 

□ Vocational Training Schools, Gaza Strip (UMCOR) 

□ Please send further information on this program 
we are particularly interested in 






July 1973 TOGETHER 


The Church as Stockholder: 

Discovering Proxy Power 


FEW YEARS AGO, when news 
reports began appearing about how 
church organizations were using 
their positions as stockholders to 
attempt to influence the policies 
of major U.S. corporations, church 
leaders were not surprised to receive 
letters of protest from some of their 
fellow churchmen. Some of the 
writers, as expected, wanted to know 
why the churches were meddling in 
the affairs of private companies. 

Many of the letter writers, how- 
ever, had a more basic concern: Why 
did the church have such large sums 
of money to invest in the first place? 
Why hadn't it been put to doing 
Christ's work in the world? And even 
if it were to be invested, why was it 
"gambled" in the stock market? 

It is estimated that all U.S. 
churches may have $20 billion or 
more invested in common and pre- 
ferred stocks, corporate and municipal 
bonds, government securities, mort- 
gages, bank deposits, real estate, and 
other properties. No one knows 
exactly how much of the total is 
United Methodist money. The Coun- 
cil on Finance and Administration 
(CFA) is presently carrying out in- 
structions from the 1972 General 
Conference to determine the total 
investment of all general agencies 
of the denomination. It seems likely 
to go well over $500 million. 

By far the largest portion of the 
United Methodist money is in pen- 
sion funds accumulated for the re- 
tirement of the church's employees, 
chiefly its ministers, and the protec- 
tion of their dependents. The Board 
of Pensions reported assets of more 
than $436 million at the end of 1972. 
That money, of course, does not be- 
long to the church or to the board 

itself but to the individuals, annual 
conferences, and other United Meth- 
odist agencies which have entrusted 
it to the board for safekeeping and 
management. (Pension funds for re- 
tired deaconesses and some mis- 
sionaries are supervised by the 
Women's Division of the Board of 
Global Ministries.) 

Other investments, representing 
reserve funds and endowments, are 
held by the Board of Global Min- 
istries, the Board of Higher Education 
and Ministry, the Board of Publica- 
tion, the Board of Church and 
Society, and CFA itself. 

United Methodist general agencies 
recognize that part ownership of a 
business enterprise through stock- 
holdings carries with it a moral 
responsibility. "I have not seen any 
concern of the church emerge with 
greater vitality than this one," says 
R. Bryan Brawner, head of the CFA 
staff and general treasurer of the 
denomination. "I certainly think it is 
consistent with the gospel." 

The Rev. Claire C. Hoyt, general 
secretary of the Board of Pensions, 
referred to actions which a church 
agency can take to express social re- 
sponsibility as a stockholder: "There 
was a time when you aimed at a 
'clean' portfolio and immediately 
disposed of any questionable stock. 
Now you study and evaluate, inform 
companies of your concern, take 
proxy actions, and sometimes divest 
yourself of holdings. The focus is on 

Among United Methodist agencies, 
none has involved itself more vigor- 
ously in using its power and in- 
fluence as a stockholder than the 
Women's Division of the Board of 
Global Ministries. The division was 

one of the first to act on a specific 
situation when, in 1967, it sold bonds 
of a New York City bank as a protest 
to the bank's participation in a 
financial arrangement benefiting the 
white-supremacist government of the 
Republic of South Africa. Other 
developments in the 1960s and early 
1970s have drawn the Women's 
Division, along with other church 
groups, into concerns of minority 
enterprise and equal-employment 
opportunities, protection of the 
environment, technological warfare, 
and renewed concern with repres- 
sive economic and political systems 
like those in southern Africa. 

Treasurer of the Women's Divi- 
sion, the executive who manages the 
division's $31 million investment 
portfolio, is Miss Florence Little, a 
native of Atlanta who had a 20-year 
career as a statistician with Southern 
Bell Telephone Company before 
coming to the division staff in 1961. 
In addition to her United Methodist 
role, Miss Little also is chairman of 
the Interfaith Committee on Social 
Responsibility in Investments, and it 
was out of this group that this year's 
most significant church-as-stock- 
holder actions developed. A coalition 
of eight church-related groups formed 
what they called the Church Project 
on U.S. Investments in Southern 
Africa — 1973. Two were United 
Methodist agencies — the World and 
Women's divisions. Others repre- 
sented the Unitarian Universalist As- 
sociation, the United Church of 
Christ, the American Baptist, United 
Presbyterian, and Protestant Episco- 
pal churches, and the National 
Council of Churches. 

Together, the church groups filed 
resolutions with 12 major U.S. cor- 


July 1973 TOGETHER 

porations, asking them to disclose 
details of their involvement in the 
Republic of South Africa. Eight of 
the companies agreed, in advance of 
their annual stockholder meetings, to 
provide the information. The other 
four — First National City Corpora- 
tion, International Business Ma- 
chines, General Electric Company, 
and Caterpillar Tractor Company — 
did not, and the stockholder chal- 
lenges were carried through to votes 
in their respective annual meetings. 
The resolutions, as expected, were 
defeated by wide margins in all four 
cases, not, however, without re- 
ceiving serious response from the 
company managements and wide at- 
tention in the news media. 

The resolution was presented at 
the annual meeting of Caterpillar 
Tractor Company by Miss Little for 
the Women's Division which owns 
7,000 shares of Caterpillar stock. The 
resolution received 4 million out of 
57 million votes. Miss Little inter- 
preted the 7 percent favorable vote, 
higher than any previous vote on a 
South Africa resolution, as a sign of 
stockholders' increasing awareness of 
the apartheid issue. 

Together Managing Editor Paige 
Carlin talked recently with Miss 
Little in New York. 

How did the churches come to their 
present style of working together for 
corporate social responsibility? 

Back about 1966 and 1967 great 
emphasis was placed on investment 
portfolios, taking special impetus 
from the situation in South Africa — 
the bank consortium arrangement 
providing funds for the government 
of South Africa. Our missions board 
was using one of the banks, and in 
1967 we sold the bonds that we held 
in the First National City Bank of 
New York as a protest to its participa- 
tion in the consortium. Other church 
agencies also withdrew their funds, 
and a substantial loan arrangement 
went to another bank. 

Then in 1969 black enterprise ap- 
peared. James Foreman, to be 
specific, made demands for capital 
funds for black entrepreneurs. In the 
National Council of Churches' Divi- 
sion of Christian Life and Mission a 
study group was formed, seeking to 
design an arrangement whereby 
churches would make funds available 
for investment by blacks. As an out- 
growth of this concern, we realized 

that we didn't have sufficient infor- 
mation on total operations of Ameri- 
can business and industry. 

It was then that the Corporate 
Information Center [CIC], with 
Frank White as its director, was 
formed. It is a research organization 
whose major function is to provide 
information in response to inquiries 
raised by churches and other groups 
such as foundations to help them 
make investment decisions. It uses 
the resources of other research 
agencies as well as providing re- 
search of its own. It publishes briefs 
relating either to a specific issue or 
to a specific company. About ten 
times a year it publishes The Cor- 
porate Examiner in which it pulls to- 
gether articles or excerpts from other 
publications about what's going on 
in such areas as ecology, pollution, 
technological warfare, equal employ- 
ment, the multinational corporations, 
South Africa, and so on. One of the 
Corporate Information Center's 
studies received wide attention in 
1972 because it revealed that the 
churches had many investments re- 
lated to the technology of warfare. 

The CIC got off the ground in 
early 1971 and now has a staff of 
seven. The board of directors is 
selected from various backgrounds 
from universities, foundations, busi- 
nesses, and professions as well as 
churches. Until July this year, it 
received some funding from the Na- 
tional Council of Churches, but its 
main financial support comes 
through service fees charged for its 
research and contributions from in- 
terested groups. 

One of the problems, I understand, 
is the difficulty of developing a data 
bank for the kinds of information you 
need to judge a company's perfor- 
mance on matters of social concern. 
That's right. Financial data are 
readily available because the Securi- 
ties and Exchange Commission, the 
federal regulatory agency, requires 
companies to provide that informa- 
tion to the public. The other kinds 
of data about social concerns are not 
so accessible. How you establish this 
kind of information, to build up 
what we call a company's social 
profile, is very difficult. But establish- 
ing such a data bank is one of the 
main purposes of the Corporate In- 
formation Center, and it has acquired 
a tremendous backlog of information 

— by asking the companies for in- 
formation or gleaning it from annual 
reports or other published data. 

Would you trace also the develop- 
ment of the Interfaith Committee on 
Social Responsibility in Investments? 

Another strand of the churches' 
concern coming out of the late 
1960s was response to individuals or 
groups with special problems. Two 
U.S. business concerns — American 
Metal Climax and Kennecott Copper 
— were planning to go into Puerto 
Rico to extract copper by open-pit 
mining. A small group of persons of 
the Episcopal Church in Puerto Rico 
appealed to the New York Diocese 
for help. They said, in effect, "We are 
being driven out of our homes. Our 

Florence Little 

Treasurer, Women's Division 
Board of Global Ministries 

land is being destroyed. Our ocean 
waters will be polluted because 
these two companies are coming 
down here." 

Seven denominations who were 
shareholders in one or the other of 
the two companies rallied to partic- 
ipate in a public hearing. In January, 
1971, after due contact with the two 
companies and with the government 
of Puerto Rico, a three-day public 
hearing was held in San Juan to 
determine whether or not it was 
feasible for the companies to con- 
tinue with their plans. The hearing 
brought out information unknown to 

July 1973 TOGETHER -|-| 

the people of Puerto Rico about 
long-standing agreements their 
government had made with the 
companies. The result was a delay in 
establishing the proposed mining 
operations, and they are still not 
under way. 

Did the companies attend? 

Kennecott said it was none of the 
churches' business: Churches, stay 
away from us. But we did have rep- 
resentatives from American Metal 
Climax, the government, and the 

Following these experiences, the 
churches began to express them- 
selves as to what it means to be a 
responsible investor in a company. 
They recognized that you must con- 
sider more than just the financial 
returns from your investment. Having 
reached that decision, the denomina- 
tions began to establish guidelines 
for investments and to determine 
how to make contact with corpora- 
tions, seeking to raise consciousness 
within the company boardrooms. 
When consciousness is raised in the 
boardroom over an issue, there is 
the beginning of change. We recog- 
nize that most of the decision makers 
in corporate life are themselves 
church persons. 

It was really out of their coming 
together around the public hearing in 
Puerto Rico that the denominations 
have stayed with one another. We 
moved from an ad hoc status to 
more firm committee status about a 
year ago when we employed Timothy 
Smith as our staff executive and set 
up a $30,000 budget. Contributions 
to the budget have come from those 
church groups that are interested. 

Our basic presumption is that we 
affirm the fact that God created the 
world and that we are all brothers 
and sisters in it, entitled to live a 
life of justice rather than oppression. 
So we seek to destroy those factors 
wherever they may be in the world 
that tend to dehumanize individuals. 
And we have done this out of studies 
in the theological, social, human, 
economic factors of the world. 

United Methodist participants in 
the committee come from the Board 
of Church and Society and from the 
World, Women's, and National divi- 
sions of the Board of Global Ministries. 

I've been in close touch with our 
other boards and agencies, giving 
them information on the committee 

as a forum for discussion, for raising 
issues, for seeking information, and 
for creating task forces related to a 
particular issue. 

The Church Project on U.S. Invest- 
ments in Southern Africa represents 
one of these particular issues? 

That's right. It is an ad hoc coali- 
tion but receives support from 
groups other than denominations. 
The Interfaith Committee has given 
support to the coalition and has 
provided funds for the publication of 
our proxy statements. It's in a posi- 
tion to provide legal counsel should 
legal counsel be necessary. 

You have alluded to some of the 
techniques for raising corporate 
social consciousness. Would you ex- 
plain how these are used? 

If any stockholder of a company, 
individual or institution, wishes more 
information on the company's opera- 
tion, he may first ask for the infor- 
mation. It may or may not be re- 
vealed. If it is not revealed, and if 
the shareholder is earnest in seeking 
a change in company policy, the next 
step is to say to the company by 
letter, "We are seeking information, 
so we are filing this resolution with 
you in order for you to submit it to 
all the shareholders for voting at the 
annual stockholders meeting." 

The Securities and Exchange Com- 
mission has certain procedures the 
shareholder must follow to request a 
company to put such a "disclosure" 
resolution in its proxy statement. If 
the stockholder fulfills these require- 
ments, the company must publish 
the resolution in the proxy material 
it sends to all its shareholders. 

The company pays for the printing 
and mailing of proxy statements 
carrying the company's point of view. 
We as the shareholder raising the 
question are permitted to make a 
statement of no more than 100 
words supporting our resolution, but 
if we wish to make a more complete 
explanation of our position, we must 
pay for the printing and distribution 
of that material. We have done this, 
not as the Women's Division, for 
instance, but as members of the 
Interfaith Committee. We contribute 
to the budget of the Interfaith Com- 
mittee, and one of the budget items 
of the committee provides funds for 
the solicitation of proxies from other 

I'm sure you understand that I 
don't do anything as an individual. 
Everything I do as treasurer of the 
Women's Division is done on in- 
struction from the Board of Managers 
of the division. The total Board of 
Managers voted last October that we 
initiate, file, and follow through on 
the action with Caterpillar. 

Did you ask Caterpillar to provide 
the names and addresses of all other 
stockholders so that you could solicit 
their votes directly? 

We haven't attempted to distribute 
our proxy statements to all of the 
other shareholders. That would be 
too expensive. 

Then how do you distribute your 

We distribute our proxy solicita- 
tion statements wherever we think 
we can get support. We have mailed 
them to all other United Methodist 
boards and agencies. Other denomi- 
nations mailed them to their people, 
and we mailed theirs to our people. 

We have received mail from across 
the U.S. as a result of the news re- 
ports on our action — both from sup- 
porters and from those who did not 
support us. 

What is the view of those who do 
not support you? 

They tell us that if we are an 
investor, we are in it to get the 
profits from the company and that 
how it operates is not our business. 

What is your response to that? 

My response, first of all, is to say 
that while I appreciate the person's 
writing and respect his point of view, 
mine is different. Then I quote from 

12 July 1973 TOGETHER 

the actions of the United Methodist 
General Conference in 1970 and 1972 
to indicate that we are acting in a 
way the conference directed. 

Why was southern Africa chosen for 
stockholder actions by the churches 
this year? 

Well, I would say we chose south- 
ern Africa because the churches, 
including our General Conference, 
have had so much to say on the 
subject, because racism is something 
that Americans are beginning to 
understand, and because of the in- 
justice of the apartheid system. It's 
so contrary to the church's teachings 
of acceptance of all persons. 

There is a certain amount of cost to 
a company in responding to a stock- 
holder challenge. As investors, 
church agencies presumably want to 
have their money in a profitable 
enterprise. How do you justify the 
added expense to which you put the 
company by filing a disclosure res- 

We feel there is justification in 
putting the company to some added 
expense to provide information on 
the basis that with the provision of 
the information, as it enhances the 
decision-making of other share- 
holders concerning the operation of 
the company, and with the increased 
awareness of the company for the 
total world, even if profits are re- 
duced somewhat, humanity is more 
important than products and ser- 
vices. That may sound like a cliche, 
but it is sincere. We have counted 
the cost and we realize, because the 
church teaches us that you don't 
make gains without some cost or 
some loss, that it's worth it in the 

long run. We're not going into it 
blindly; we know it costs something. 
This is especially true in those in- 
dustries where pollution is a factor. 
Pollution-control equipment is costly. 

Is part of a company's response 
based on a recognition that it may 
be put in a bad public light? 

I would hope that part of their 
response is based on public con- 
sciousness. But public relations or 
public image is not their only con- 
cern. I feel that there is a genuine 
raised consciousness across the 
whole business community. I think 
this must be true because magazines 
like Fortune and Institutional In- 
vestor have carried articles highlight- 
ing social responsibility of corpora- 
tions. I think this is a genuine 
response. I don't think it's just to 
avoid a bad image, but none of us 
wants a bad image if we can do 
something about it, so this is 
important too. 

When you first began to contact rep- 
resentatives of business, what did 
they seem to expect of the church's 

I'm not sure just what they ex- 
pected. I believe out of an experi- 
ence as recent as January of this 
year, when Eastman Kodak sent rep- 
resentatives to talk to us about the 
World Division's resolution on 
southern Africa, that they were not 
expecting quite as much of an in- 
depth sincerity of concern for per- 
sons as we evidenced. 

It was interesting, too, that out of 
the 12 of us who were talking around 
the table, only 4 had never been in 
South Africa. We had missionaries 
who had lived there; we had an 
executive secretary who made a 1971 
trip with other churchmen for the 
sole purpose of seeing American 
businesses at work there. The two 
representatives from Kodak, the 
secretary who was taking notes, and 
I were the only ones who had no 
firsthand experience in South Africa. 

Are you an individual investor? 

Yes, I am. At Southern Bell I was 
able to purchase stock on an 
employee-purchase plan. Also, part 
of my responsibility working in the 
disbursement office at one time was 
to get the closing quotations off the 
stock ticker. So I am interested in 
the marketplace. History is my avoca- 

tion. I feel that people determine 
history, and I have been interested 
in what groups of people have been 
able to do. So I feel fortunate that 
I have an outlet for both interests. 

In making investment decisions, I 
presume that the Women's Division 
is guided by professional investment 
counselors. How do you guide them 
and how do they guide you? 

Our division has the only invest- 
ment committee in The United 
Methodist Church that is made up 
entirely of women. These women are 
very sharp in their ability to ask ques- 
tions in their special areas of con- 
cern. But we have expertise only in 
the concerns of the church as op- 
posed to expertise in financial man- 
agement. In addition to nine women 
who are members of the Board of 
Managers, we co-opt persons who 
bring expertise in the legal, financial, 
and investment fields. 

We use the Irving Trust Company 
in New York as advisory custodians 
of our account. Over the years the 
women have determined what they 
want to do with their investment 
portfolio. The advisers take their cue 
from what our concerns are and 
make recommendations accordingly. 

An interesting example of that oc- 
curred last August when our advisers 
recommended that we purchase 
securities in a certain orange-juice 
company in Florida. One of our peo- 
ple raised the question: "Does this 
company grow its own oranges?" 
The advisers said, "No, they purchase 
oranges from the growers. We have 
heard that Florida is to be the next 
area where Caesar Chavez will seek 
to organize farm laborers, and we 
felt that if the division were a share- 
holder in an orange-juice company, 
it might be in a position to support 
the farm-workers movement by en- 
couraging the company to purchase 
oranges only from unionized 
growers." We bought the securities. 

The point of the story is to 
indicate that our advisers have taken 
their cue from our concerns, and 
they bring to us the types of recom- 
mendations that are in line with our 
concerns. We feel that social re- 
sponsibility is not a side issue. It is 
a major component and extremely 
important in our investments, as 
important as the fiscal return. D 

July 1973 TOGETHER 13 

*J ~*iJ 


By Tom H. Forbes 

I FIRST heard of Mr. Harrington's plight down at the 
country store. A stranger in our part of North Carolina, 
he was a tired-looking man in his late forties who sat 
talking with a group of sunburned tobacco farmers. 

"It'll take a dozer to get her in place," advised one. 

"Ain't none of these farm tractors round here could 
budge it," said another. 

"Budge what?" I asked. 

"Mr. Harrington's trailer house. Didn't you know?" 

Mr. Harrington, I learned, had bought an acre lot out 
of a plot of muck woodland not far away. He'd had it 
cleared during June's long dry spell and, until July's 
heavy thunderstorms lashed the area, it had looked fine. 
But now the sticky, black bottomland sought to swallow 
any vehicles attempting to cross it. Just the same, Mr. 
Harrington had purchased a new sixty-foot mobile home. 

Naturally, the delivering tow truck's wheels had dug 
deeply into the boggy earth. Behind it the heavy mobile 
home, its wheels tracking in the muddy ruts, had leaned 
over like a derailed coach. A hundred feet from a shady 
spot chosen by Mrs. Harrington and her teen-age daugh- 
ter for their new home, the grinding truck and its towed 
load had come to a halt. A wrecker had been summoned 
to winch the tow truck free, but it had proved useless 
against the slowly sinking mobile home. 

Truly Mr. Harrington needed a bulldozer. And I owned 
one — such as it was — skipping engine, floppy tracks, 
leaking fuel lines, and coated with years of rust. Mr. 
Harrington didn't seem as tired after I told him about 
my old bulldozer. His eyes even sparkled a bit when I 
said there'd be no charge to set his new home in place. 

Deep inside I felt good, too. Here, I thought, was a 
chance to show the Harrington family that they would be 
living among good neighbors. 

Realizing that I would be unable to leave my job on 
Saturday morning, I called a friend, Dick Haddock, a 
Greenville fireman and bulldozer enthusiast, explaining 
Mr. Harrington's muddled situation. Luckily, he said he 
would be free, and he even expressed some joy over 
having to walk the decrepit bulldozer along the mile of 
dirt road from my backyard to the troubled spot. He 
had wrestled with it before, remembering the very tender 
care it had to receive in order to perform. 

After the noisy, jolting ride that Saturday morning, 
Dick soon had Mr. Harrington's mobile home nestled in 
the shade under the cluster of little pines. I arrived in 
time to hear the happy sighs of relief and to see the 
grateful smiles of thankfulness. I told Dick I'd come back 
later and return the bulldozer. 

That afternoon, just before driving the shaky machine 

off the deep-rutted lot, I noticed a gaping hole just in 
front of the mobile home, probably gouged there by the 
bogged tow truck. Believing it would take only a couple 
of passes with the massive leveling blade to refill it, 
I proceeded to work a pile of roots and mud that way. 
But my last good intentions turned into a sticky trap. 

The old bulldozer passed over the hole, dumped its 
pushed burden — and then refused to move backward. 
Directly in my path, the mobile home posed as a shiny, 
unsympathetic barrier. Clanking and squealing, the floppy 
tracks clawed deeply into the black mud until, finally, 
like a floundering hippopotamus, the bulldozer became 
hopelessly stuck. Shutting off the engine, I sat with my 
hands gripping the gritty throttle. How much would it 
cost, I wondered, to free 12 tons of steel from that 
messy bottomland. 

It was that quiet time of evening respected by birds, 
frogs, and wind, but I felt helpless and flustered. Was 
this spiritual justice? I wondered. Since I'd acted through 
Christian love — and since I had felt it was Cod's business 
in the beginning — I wanted to ask him why he'd allowed 
this trouble to come on me. I felt like a slapped little 
boy who happily carries a bunch of wild, foul-smelling 
flowers to an ungrateful mother. 

I'm sure my minister delivered another fine message 
that Sunday morning, but I wasn't in a receiving mood. 
I still had my unsettled complaint with God. Did he 
really care about my problem? If so, where would he be 
while I labored to unstick the bulldozer? 

To break the sabbath in our neighborhood, I thought 
one should have justifiable chores to perform. Feeding 
and watering the farm animals, tending the drying heats 
in the tobacco barns, and milking, I had observed, passed 
the test. But what about pulling my mechanical ox from 
the mire? 

Before leaving church I told four young deacons (all 
young family men) what had happened and explained 
that this Sunday afternoon would be my only opportunity 
during the weekend to free the bulldozer. 

"Sure, we understand," they said. I wasn't sure, 
though, just how my four neighbors would react to my 
shoveling mud on Sunday. 

After lunch, my 12-year-old son, Worth, and I went 
back to the half-submerged crawler. The afternoon was 
stuffy. A smothering blast poured over me each time I 
mounted the shaky machine and tried to spin it loose. 
Worth carried armloads of brush and sticks, stuffing them 
under the tracks, hoping it would catch and pull itself 
out. On into the evening we worked — digging, stuffing, 
trying again, sweating. Finally, exhausted, we gave up. 


July 1973 TOGETHER 





"WE*.***" - 

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* * . 

. ■ •■ * . .„.-• -*■->■■ 

5*P< '■'"■ 

- ^"^^ji^ : "*Js5?' 

What could I say to my son or to myself? At the mo- 
ment I was bitter about being in the mire. But something 
deep down inside me — miles from my hurt pride — told 
me I'd acted through love, that it had been God's will. 

Worth gazed over at me, his bright brown eyes inquir- 
ing. I said, "Well, I guess this is life, son." And I meant 
it. Whatever I should have said next was interrupted by 
the sound of an approaching car, rattling down the dirt 
road. It pulled up and stopped in a cloud of dust. John- 
nie Edwards, one of the deacons, stepped out dressed in 
work clothes. Before I could greet him, a pickup truck 
braked to a stop right behind him, carrying Joe Rouse, 
Hurbert Mobley, and Ernest Sutton — -the other deacons 
I'd told my troubles to — all in work clothes. 

I couldn't speak as they trudged across the miry black 
mud toward the trapped bulldozer. One carried a chain 
saw on his back; others brought shovels, axes, and 
chains. Stumbling and sliding in the mud, they came 
with smiles, strong hands, and sturdy backs. 

I pulled my handkerchief from my splattered jeans and 
wiped the sweat from my eyes. Now I knew that God 
had cared all the time. 

"We've come to help," said Ernest, a highway con- 
struction worker. He quickly surveyed the problem, told 
Joe to saw a large pole that would reach across the 
width of the back part of the bulldozer. To this heavy 
pole, a chain was tied and secured to the tracks. In a 
short half hour, the old skipping bulldozer crawled up 
on the half-log and was finally freed. 

Until that steamy Sunday afternoon, I had sometimes 
imagined God to be a spotless white-robed being, stand- 
ing lighthouselike along the fringes of the muck and mire 
of our everyday life, beckoning us toward higher ground. 
That this was a childish illusion dawned on me as I 
looked at those beautiful, mud-smudged men, smiling 
from their hearts of love. And few have been the times 
when I've felt closer to God. Why, I could have almost 
reached out and touched him. □ 

July W3 TOGETHER 15 


First Annual 


By Frederick A. Norwood 

Professor, History of Christianity 
Garrett Theological Seminary 

Philadelphia, 1773 — from an old print 

"We have a pressing call from our brethren at 
New York, ( who have built a preaching-house, ) to 
come over and help them. Who is willing to go?" 

This appeal by John Wesley at the Methodist 
conference of 1769 in Leeds, England, was an- 
swered during the next few years by a dozen 
English missionaries, among them Thomas Rankin 
who arrived in the colonies in 1773. 

Rankin's role, however, was more than that of 
a missionary. He was sent by Wesley to organize 
the work in the colonies. Wesley wanted to be 
sure, among other things, that Methodists in 
America were following the discipline he already 
had established among the societies in England. 

— Your Editors 

THOMAS RANKIN, fresh from his long voy- 
age across the Atlantic, was not at all happy 
with the condition of the Wesleyan movement 
in America. Wesley's special representative as 
"general assistant" had been looking for laxness, 
and he found it. 

"Indeed our discipline was not properly at- 
tended to," he wrote in his journal, "except at 
Philadelphia and New York, and even in those 
places it was upon the decline." He proposed to 
reverse the trend. Accordingly, he brought to- 
gether in Philadelphia in July, 1773, nine other 
preachers for a conference. Those ten men, 
Englishmen all, constituted the first annual con- 
ference in the history of American Methodism. 

Since 1773 not one year has passed without the 
gathering of at least one annual conference. In 
1973 there will be 72 of them in the United States. 

Rankin and the others met on July 13 at St. 
George's Church, but decided to postpone busi- 
ness until the following day when absent members, 
including Francis Asbury, were expected to arrive. 
It was a new and charming building, acquired by 
the Methodists from a faltering Dutch Reformed 
congregation in 1769, and later finished in beauti- 
ful Colonial style. Now called Old St. George's, it 
still stands in Philadelphia, restored and main- 
tained as part of the complex of historic structures 
which comprise Independence National Historical 
Park. It is the oldest Methodist church in continu- 
ous use in America. 

Who were those original ten? The convener, 
Rankin, was an "old man," a mature 35-year-old. 
Asbury s astringent characterization is as good as 
any: "He will not be admired as a preacher. But 
as a disciplinarian he will fill his place." Along 
with him came George Shadford, another "father 
in the faith" — all of 34 years old. Everybody liked 
George, to whom as he sailed Wesley had written, 
"I let you loose, George, upon the great continent 
of America." With these two official missionaries 
tagged Joseph Yearbry, a local preacher who 
played a very small part and soon returned to 

Then there was Francis Asbury, 28. Until Rankin 
arrived, he increasingly had been the leader. On 
discipline he was of one accord with Rankin. "I 
will show them the way," he wrote as he embarked 

16 )uly 1973 TOGETHER 

on a two-thousand-mile round of itinerant preach- 
ing. He was already demonstrating those peerless 
powers of leadership which gave him eventually 
an invincible — though by no means unchallenged 
— position as father of American Methodism. For 
the time being he found himself playing second 
fiddle, a chair which he occupied grumblingly and 
reluctantly, but obediently. Along with him had 
come another Wesley appointee, Richard Wright, 
who did not fit well the requirements of the New 
World and soon returned home. 

By right of early arrival and Wesley's original 
appointment, Richard Boardman and Joseph Pil- 
moor were the senior conference members. They 
had come in 1769 in response to a request for help 
sent to Wesley the previous year from the Meth- 
odists of New York. Both had worked hard and 
had performed notable service, especially in New 
York and Philadelphia. But they were sensitive to 
criticism and felt put-upon by Rankin's virtual 
usurpation of authority. Pilmoor confided to his 
journal, "As Mr. Boardman and I had been shame- 
fully misrepresented to Mr. Wesley, and Mr. 
Rankin sent over to take the whole management 
upon himself . . ." Well, that's an old story in 
human relations, including relations among 
preachers. Boardman and Pilmoor were 35 and 34 
respectively. The conference was called chiefly 
to tighten up the laxness which Rankin detected 
in their administration. 

Also attending was John King, 27, whose great- 
est claim to homiletical fame was his ability to 
shout it out. "Scream no more, at the peril of 
your soul!" Wesley himself warned him. He 
had come in 1770, impetuously, before he had 
Wesley's appointment. In spite of his limitations 
he had already done good work, especially in 

Thomas Webb was not part of the series of pairs 
Wesley sent to America as official missionaries. 
He belonged rather to that small group of un- 
authorized lay Methodists — like Robert Straw- 
bridge and Barbara Heck and Philip Embury — 
who had planted Methodism here before anybody 
official arrived. Webb was among the chief 
founders, through his able and indefatigable labors 
in New York, Long Island, Baltimore, and Phila- 
delphia, to mention only some of his work. He had 
organized the society in Philadelphia which was 
host to the conference. Preaching regularly in his 
colorful British military uniform, he cut a striking 
figure in the pulpit with his sword laid crosswise 
before him. 

Abraham Whitworth, the remaining member, 
rounds out the group with an unstable personality 
which enabled him to effect the conversion of Ben- 
jamin Abbott, a noted native American preacher, 
but also drove him to disaster as an alcoholic. 

THESE, THEN, young men all (except for 
49-year-old Webb), some experienced and 
disciplined, others untried and vulnerable, 
all English-born — these were the members of that 
first insignificant meeting in Old St. George's 
which tinned out to be the first in an unbroken 
succession of annual conferences, some of which 
grew so large that no church could hold them. 
What did they deliberate on those three days? 

The conference minutes have come down to 
us in printed form, and they occupy not quite 
all of twp pages — small pages. Not very many 
authors today would wish to quote in their entirety 
the minutes of an annual conference of The United 
Methodist Church. But here they are, those of 
1773, all of them, from A History of the Most Inter- 
esting Events in the Rise and Progress of Method- 
ism, in Europe and America, published in 1831: 

The following queries were proposed to every preacher : 

1. Ought not the authority of Mr. Wesley and that con- 
ference, to extend to the preachers and people in America, 
as well as in Great Britain and Ireland ? 

Ans. Yes. 

2. Ought not the doctrine and discipline of the Metfeo- 
dists, as contained in the minutes, to be the sole rule of our 
conduct, who labor in the connexion with Mr. Wesley, in 

Ans. Yes. 

3. If so, does it not follow, that if any preachers deviate 
from the minutes, wc can have no fellowship with them till 
they change their conduct? 

Ans. Yes. 

The following rules were agreed to by all the preachers 

1. Every preacher who acts in connexion with Mr. Wes- 
ley and the brethren who labor in America, is strictly to 
•void administering the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's 

2. All the people among whom we labor to be earnestly 
exhorted to attend the church, and to received the ordinance* 
there ; but in a particular manner, to press the people in 
Maryland and Virginia, to the observance of this minute. 

3. No person or persons to be admitted into our love- 
feasts oftener than twice or thrice, unless they become mem- 
bers : and none to be admitted to the society meetings more 
than thVice. 

4. None of the preachers in America to reprint any of 
Mr. Wesley's books, without his authority (when it can be 
gotten) and the consent of their brethren. 

5. Robert Williams to sell the books he has already 
printed, but to print no more, unless under the above re- 

6. Every preacher who acts as an assistant, to send an 

July 1973 TOCETHFR -|7 

account of the work once in 

six months to the genera] as- 


Quest 1. How 

are the preachers stationed? 


New York, 

Thomas Rankin, ) to change in 
George Shadfurd, ) four months. 

New Jersey, 

John King, William Watters. 


( Francis Asbury, Robert Strawbridge, 
( Abraham Whitworlh, Joseph Yearbry. 


Richard Wright 


Robert Williams. 

Quest. 2. What numbers are there in the society ? 


New York, 
Philadelphia, - 
New Jersey, - 

- 180 

- 180 

- 200 

Maryland, - - 500 
Virginia, - - 100 

(Preachers, 10.) 1160 

SEVERAL comments are in order. First, this 
conference, being the only such body in 
the entire movement, took responsibility not 
only for such ministerial affairs as modem Meth- 
odists would recognize in annual conference but 
also for broad matters of policy which now are 
properly identified with the General Conference. 

Second, Wesley's authority was explicitly ac- 
cepted and established, along with the doctrine 
and discipline as defined in the Large Minutes (a 
compilation of the decisions made in Wesley's 
conferences with British Methodists). This was 
the first crack of Rankin's whip. In later years, 
especially in 1787, the preachers would have cause 
to regret the unqualified form of this minute. 

Third, the rule prohibiting the administration of 
the sacraments by lay preachers (which they all 
were until 1784) grew out of a persistent con- 
troversy, the first form of which appeared with 
Robert Strawbridge. This independent Irishman, 
who was in fact the first to plant Methodist socie- 
ties in America, did not submit well to discipline 
imposed by Englishmen. He had his own ideas 
about what the Methodists of Maryland and 
Virginia needed. If they needed the sacraments, 
he would provide them. The theological setting 
for his views would have to be the priesthood of 
all believers, a phrase he probably never heard of. 

Only an Irishman, I guess, could successfully 
defy two such determined disciplinarians as Rankin 
and Asbury. That will help explain the curious 
qualification we find in Asbury's record of the 
conference in his journal: ". . . except Mr. Straw- 
bridge, and he under the particular direction of the 
assistant." Asbury soon discovered that Straw- 
bridge wouldn't take anybody's direction. It is 
perhaps noteworthy, then, that Strawbridge was 
not present at this first conference. 

Fourth, this Methodist movement, or connec- 
tion, was still clearly within the commodious 

som of the mother church, the Church of Eng- 
land. As yet, American Methodists had no vision 
of a new church or denomination. They were still, 
for the most part, good Anglicans. On the other 
hand, they had a clear image of being a select 
company, a community of saints, who needed the 
hedging of membership, especially in the more 
intimate activities, against the merely curious or 

Fifth, the first step was taken at this conference 
to establish standards for religious publishing. If it 
began with a curb on the enterprising Robert 
Williams, it culminated in the Methodist Publish- 
ing House. In a broader sense this also was a 
step in the direction of the institutionalization of 
Methodism, a process also illustrated by the re- 
quirement of semiannual progress reports. And 
Methodists began a favorite practice — -counting 
noses! There were 1,160 of them. 

Sixth, this conference was notable almost as 
much for its absentees as for its members. The two 
preachers on whom the legislation fell most heavily 
were not present. Webb was there but Straw- 
bridge was not. King was there but Williams was 
not. Were they also not invited? 

Most interesting of all, none of the oncoming, 
native American preachers — like William Watters 
and Philip Gatch — was there. Of course they were 
not listed as admitted till the next year — but 
neither were Whitworth and Yearbry. Without 
succumbing to invidious suspicions, let us say that 
this all-English-born leadership makes clear the 
truly infantile state of the Wesleyan connection 
in America at the date of the first conference. All 
the more startling is the amazing rapidity with 
which the native American preachers were able 
to take over when the missionaries — all except 
Asbury — retired from the scene during the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 

At last, having taken care of the business, along 
with a generous sharing in worship throughout, 
after three days of it, Rankin reports, "The 
preachers were stationed in the best manner we 
could, and we parted in love." Thus began the 
hoary tradition of reading off the appointments 
at the end of annual conference. 

These Protestant soldiers of Christ, celibate like 
Jesuits, accepted their assignments obediently al- 
though not necessarily without grumbling. And 
then they rode off, either two by two, a younger 
man to learn by doing with an older; or more 
likely quite alone, to face a world of sinners which 
was at the same time a field ripe for harvest. 

A whole year, and then they would be back 
together with their brothers in conference (again 
in Philadelphia) to receive a different circuit. In 
one way or another, Methodist preachers have 
been doing this ever since. □ 

Say It! 

Our editors may or may not agree with opinions 
expressed, but they believe in your right to Say It! 
And that is what this department is for. 
Does an idea of yours need saying? Send it to Say It! 
7667 N. Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, III. 60068 

Ain't peace in Southeast Asia 
wonderful! Of course a few 
peace-keeping helicopters 
have been shot down 
and some merchant-supply ships 
have been sunk in the Mekong River, 
but with that nasty old warmaker — 
Uncle Sam — out of that part of the 
world, ain't peace wonderful! 

Jack Immell 
Buffalo, Okla. 

For years heartbeat and breathing 
were norms for determining death. 
But now with machines to support 
breathing and heartbeat, the 
declaration of death becomes 
difficult. A man might be dead 
neurologically for weeks before 
someone has the courage to pull 
the plug. . . . 

The legal right to die with dignity 
is perhaps as fundamental as the 
right to live — a personal freedom. 
The Hippocratic Oath requires that 
the physician do the greatest good 
for the patient. This might, in some 
cases, mean induced, or, at least, 
allowed death. 

What is needed is a new 
philosophy of death so that it no 
longer is the last of all choices. 

Dr. Richard L. Schultheis 
As quoted in The Lutheran 

The "bristling" letter from Loren 
E. Jackson and 61 others in Lompoc, 
Calif. [Say It!, March, page 15] 
reflects the shameful, pitiful spiritual 
plight of our church when the 
membership rejects the spiritual 
authority of Christ and the gospel 
and consequently has lost confidence 
in the church's moral leadership. 

The tone and content of the letter 
reflect, alas, a widespread confusion 
about the nature and mission of 
the church. The writers did not even 
argue that the position taken by 
the General Conference is not 
Christian, only that the official 

position is not an expression of the 
attitudes, feelings, or will of many 
church members. The letter never 
recognizes that the members could 
be confused or that the will of 
Christ may some way be involved. 

The fundamental question is not 
whether church policy statements 
come from "officials" or from the 
"flock" but whether those statements 
reflect the mind of Christ, the 
will of Cod for his church and the 
world. Mr. Jackson, and those for 
whom he speaks, apparently thinks 
that the Christian message for the 
world is derived from the feelings of 
church members, without even 
considering whether they share the 
mind of Christ. "We put our money 
in the plate; why can't we be 
represented?" the letter asks. 
(Those who pay the piper. . . .) 

Does this assume that the 
church is a body of people setting 
their own standards and goals, 
rather than the called Body of Christ 
commissioned as God's servant 


"Congratulations! You are 

the one hundredth pest who's tried 

to sell me something 

on the phone this month!" 

people for the sake of the world? 
The letter reflects great confusion 
about the source of the Christian 
gospel, God's Word to the world. 
Does the Word originate with sinful 
men or from a gracious, heavenly 
Father? Is God's will and Word 
decided by a majority vote? 

The fact that man's claim to speak 
the will of God is problematic does 
not justify the Christian church in 
adopting any other standard. Perhaps 
we will move one step closer toward 
exercising the legitimate authority of 
the church when its members 
acknowledge the person of Christ as 
the absolute standard of truth and 
goodness, God's supreme gift to an 
estranged world. Affirming Christ as 
absolute standard, of course, will 
not automatically produce simple 
solutions to all the perplexing 
problems of the church's mission and 
message in the world; but it will 
clarify the basic question of 
standards, namely whether the 
church's statements to the world are 
faithful beams of light from God's 
grace in Jesus Christ or cloud wisps 
rising from the cultural climate. 

L. Elbert Wethington 
Annville, Pa. 

In taking a stand on issues, the 
Church gives guidance to its members 
which they desperately need in a 
world in turmoil. Issues are 
complicated and confusing. They 
need interpreting to the average 
member who hasn't the time and 
the available resources to arrive at a 
decision. It is not enough for the 
Church to be against sin and for 
righteousness. That is taken for 

The question is: What is the 
Christian thing to do in a specific 
case? Generalization without 
specification is fatal. It's like saying 
the love of Christ is the answer to 
all our problems without explaining 
how that love should be applied to 
specific situations. The reason 
Christ's love isn't applied many 
times is because Christians simply 
don't know how. Church 
pronouncements help. . . . It is 
better to belong to a Church 
that has something to say and says 
it, than to belong to one that says 
nothing on issues vitally affecting 
life on this planet! 

From The Editor's Pulpit 
Michigan Christian Advocate 

July 1973 TOGETHER 19 

'A church that is the captive of the culture, or a message that merely echoes the values of 
society, cannot be truly evangelistic or truly biblical,' says this six-year veteran of the U.S. Senate. 

The Danger of Merging 
Piety and Patriotism 


United States Senator from Oregon 

DISCUSSIONS on the relationship 
between Christianity and poli- 
tics often give rise to the idea 
that being a Christian is likely to 
make one a good citizen. This idea 
is based on tacit acceptance of the 
proposition that there is a close 
affinity between allegiance to Christ 
and loyalty to the state, particularly 
in a democracy. 

During the period of debate in the 
U.S. Senate in 1970, when Senator 
McGovern of South Dakota and I 
offered an amendment to what was 
called the Amendment to End the 
War, I received many letters of com- 
munication. One of them said, "Why 
do you think you have the right to 
interfere with our President? Have 
you forgotten that God's way is to 
respect and honor those in authority? 
What higher power is there than 
President Nixon? God put him there. 
'Therefore he who resists the authori- 
ties resists what God has appointed, 
and those who resist will incur judg- 
ment' [Romans 13:2]." 

This is perhaps an extreme ex- 
ample, but there are many within 
the Christian community who con- 
clude that faith in Christ means obedi- 
ence and allegiance to those in 
political authority; beyond this, one 
need not involve his personal faith 
in politics. 

The more I observe contemporary 
America, the more I read about the 
history of the church, and the more 

Reprinted by permission from The 
Church Herald, published by the Re- 
formed Church in America. — your Editors 

I study the Scriptures, the more I 
sense how dangerous it is to merge 
piety with our patriotism. 

The Christian, like every citizen, 
cannot avoid political involvement, 
but his responsibility is to bring this 
realm of his life, like all others, under 
the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Our 
politics must never be ruled by 
thoughtless conformity to the culture, 
because it is clear that our culture 
is not Christian in the truest sense of 
the word. We do not, as a culture, 
accept the ultimate authority of Jesus 
Christ over all people, all nations, and 
all history. We do not, as a culture, 
believe that our ultimate allegiance 
and trust must be placed in God's 
work of redemption and salvation. 

Yet, our culture is "religious." "In 
God We Trust" is stamped on our 
coins. Nearly every president of the 
United States has made a reference 
to God or Divine Providence (al- 
though none has ever referred to 
Jesus Christ) in his inaugural address. 
Most Americans, I believe, assume 
that religion in some way is essential 
to giving the nation strength and 
success. They have great faith in their 
"civil religion," a religion that really 
is nothing more than unitarianism. It 
includes the belief that God has 
blessed and chosen America as he 
did Israel; that Washington, like 
Moses, led a people out of bondage 
into a new land; and that the Con- 
stitution and Declaration of Inde- 
pendence (whose authors were most- 
ly Deists!) were written after inspired 
prayer meetings. 

There are certain kernels of truth 

in this civil religion. It is true that 
many of the early settlers came to 
America with a deep sense of 
religious commitment and a vision 
of a new order to be established for 
the glory of God. Read the New 
England Federation Compact or the 
Mayflower Compact and other early 
documents, and you will find in our 
history an inspiring spiritual heritage. 
In fact, Allen Evans has said that the 
history of America is the history of a 
spiritual movement. 

But our civil religion distorts the 
relationship between the state and 
our faith. It tends to enshrine our 
law and order and national righteous- 
ness while failing to speak of repen- 
tance, salvation, and God's standard of 
justice. The Promised Land becomes 
the Perfect Land in civil religion. 
America's actions become spiritually 
ordained, and even in war we are 
beyond reproach, fulfilling a divine 

The God of our civil religion, how- 
ever, is a small and very exclusive 
deity. He is a pawn rather than a 
king, a loyal spiritual adviser to 
American power and prestige, an 
exclusive defender of the American 
nation, and the object of a national 
folk religion devoid of moral content. 

And until our faith is placed in the 
biblical God of justice and righteous- 
ness, revealed in the person of Jesus 
Christ, we shall continue to use the 
trappings of religion to sanctify the 
status quo. This God demands that 
a relationship to him begins with re- 
pentance; that his will be discovered 
not through nationalistic vainglory 

but through acts of humble love, 
service, and justice. 

Isaiah stated it clearly when he 
said: "Is not this what I require of 
you ... to loose the fetters of in- 
justice ... to snap every yoke and 
set free those who have been 
crushed? Is it not sharing your food 
with the hungry, taking the homeless 
poor into your house, clothing the 
naked when you meet them, and 
never evading a duty to your kins- 
folk?" (Isaiah 58:6-7, NEB.) 

Much of the organized church 
today has allowed its thinking and 
values to be shaped by the world. 
It is, in many ways, the captive of 
our culture, and the religion of 
America is America. 

History's Unlearned Lessons 

If we are to liberate the church 
and ourselves from conformity to the 
world, then we must allow ourselves 
to hear the Word of God over the 
tumult of society. Exploiting or water- 
ing down religious faith to make it 
compatible with political ends is not 
a temptation unique to our country 
or to our period of history. Much of 
the church's history has been domi- 
nated by the political prostitution of 
its faith to serve the powers of 
emperors, kings, and governments. 

You see this even in the establish- 
ment of the monarchy in the Old 
Testament when the people of 
Israel wanted a king like all other 
nations. They wanted to follow the 
conventional wisdom of the age and 
trust in worldly programs to insure 
their security. Samuel warned of the 
danger inherent in setting up such 
uncontrolled kingly powers when he 
responded to the people's request, 
and his prophetic warning has con- 
tinuing relevance. There are oppres- 
sive dangers present whenever a 
nation meekly submits to rulers and 
gives them absolute power. Our trust 
is easily misplaced. 

A good example of this is found 
in Christ's earthly ministry when 
Roman soldiers enforced the political 
occupation of Israel. There was great 
resentment toward Rome, and some- 
times the anger and bitterness of 
the Jews were channeled into direct 
resistance. Tax collectors were hated 
because they collected Rome's reve- 
nues. However, some of the elements 
of the Jewish political and religious 
establishment were willing to ally 
themselves with Rome. This was 

especially true with the Sadducees, 
the religious leaders who justified the 
political status quo. They saw politics 
in one sphere, totally divorced from 
their religion, which was in another. 
They were the political collaboration- 
ists of their day because they ap- 
proved of Roman occupation without 

Christ was outspoken in his 
condemnation of this party and its 
political-religious establishment. In 
the light of the kingdom of Cod and 
its demands, that order could not be 
accepted; it stood under judgment. 
And when he called the tax gatherers 
to repentance, like Matthew, it meant 
that they renounced their former life 
of collaboration with Rome and the 
injustice that it involved. 

Another group called the Zealots 
were committed to the forceful over- 
throw of Roman power through 
military effort. A subversive, guerrilla- 
type movement, the Zealots were 
opposed to taxes, social injustice, and 
those like the Sadducees who co- 
operated with Rome. They looked 
for a political messiah who would 
lead their resistance and establish a 
new Israel, a Jewish theocracy. 

Although Christ had at least one 
close follower with Zealot sympa- 
thies, he himself refused to embrace 
this movement of violent resistance 
and even regarded it as a temptation 
of the devil. In the Garden of Geth- 
semane, when the authorities came 
to arrest him and some disciples 
wanted to fight, Jesus said, "All who 
take the sword die by the sword" 
(Matthew 26:52, NEB). His words, 
"love your enemies," were directed 
even to those excluded by the 

Christ rejected both extremes as 
represented by the Zealots and the 
Sadducees. He condemned the Saddu- 
cees who were blind to injustice, and 
he resisted the Zealots who believed 
that injustice had to be met with 
violence. He proclaimed instead the 
way of love. His life demonstrated 
that God's kingdom does not come 
through the world's political power 
but through the power of love. 

What About 1776? 

The Epistles as well as the Gospels 
describe the relationship between a 
man's faith and his responsibility to 
the state. Romans 13:1 ("Let every 
person be subject to the governing 
authorities.") is often cited by well- 

meaning Christians who insist that all 
authority is constituted by God and 
must therefore be obeyed. But what 
about the authority of Great Britain 
in 1776? It was a constituted author- 
ity, yet we glorify the American 
Revolution. This instance and others 
in which a rebellion against authority 
is "justified" forces us to reread 
Romans 13, reading this time not 
out of context but considering the 
verses immediately before this chap- 
ter. Listen to these words: 

"Never pay back evil for evil. . . . 
If possible, so far as it lies with you, 

live at peace with all men. My dear 
friends, do not seek revenge, but 
leave a place for divine retribution; 
for there is a text which reads, 'Justice 
is mine, says the Lord, I will repay.' 
But there is another text: 'If your 
enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is 
thirsty, give him a drink; by doing 
this you will heap live coals on his 
head.' Do not let evil conquer you, 
but use good to defeat evil." (Romans 
12:17-21, NEB.) 

The New Testament tells the Chris- 

July 1973 TOGETHER 


tian that he does owe the state 
•respect because the state is ordained 
by God. But as Paul says, the state 
is also accountable to Cod, and if 
it is evil, that is quite a different 
story. The Christian must regard the 
powers of the state and their poten- 
tial for good (and evil) even more 
seriously than the state itself does. 
And he owes obedience as long as 
this does not involve disobedience to 
God. But whenever the state and Cod 
come into direct conflict, the Chris- 
tian has only one choice: Render to 
God, not to Caesar. And God and 
Caesar are not on a par. 

The Christian should pray for the 
state regardless of how bad or good 
or just or unjust it is. He must wit- 
ness to the state by his words and 
acts. He must demonstrate that Christ 
is sovereign over all, and ultimately 
we are all bound to the law of love. 

The Bible gives us no basis for 
uncritically accepting the state, or 
for rejecting it either. Rather, the 
Bible tells us that at times Caesar and 
God may come into conflict. Then 
we know what our priority is. 

The Legacy of Constantine 

The relationship of the Christian 
to the state has a very interesting 
history. The first Christians in the 
early church gave their primary al- 
legiance to Christ and his kingdom, 
not to the Roman Empire. Early 
Christians refused to give oaths of 
allegiance to the emperor and the 
empire. They did not join the Roman 
army or participate in the Roman 
court system, which they thought to 
be unjust. 

And you know what happened to 
them. Maximilian, a young Christian 
of the third century, appeared before 
an African proconsul named Dion 
for induction into the army. Refusing 
induction, he simply stated, "I can- 
not serve for I am a Christian." Dion 
replied, "Get into the service or it 
will cost you your life." Maximilian's 
last remark was, "I do this age no 
war-service, but I do war-service for 
my God." He was executed March 
12, A.D. 295, and his father, also a 
Christian, returned home, deeply 
proud of his son's unbending loyalty 
to God. Historians report that there 
were many cases like this, which may 
have led to the massive persecution 
of Christians in A.D. 303. 

Another Roman official, Celsus, was 
insistent that Christians fulfill their 

duty to the emperor. If everybody 
followed the ethic of nonresistance, 
he said, the empire would be ruined. 
Origen, a learned father of the early 
church, rebutted the position of 
Celsus by pointing out that Christians 
"have come in accordance with the 
counsel of Jesus, to cut down our 
arrogant swords of argument into 
plowshares, and we convert into 
sickles the spears we formerly used 
in fighting. For we no longer take 
swords against a nation, nor do we 
learn any more to make war, having 
become sons of peace for the sake 
of Jesus, who is our Lord." 

The conversion of Emperor Con- 
stantine in the fourth century is of 
course a watershed in church history. 
Historians have sometimes wondered 
whether this was a genuine con- 
version or whether it was perhaps 
motivated by political expediency, 
but this is not the place for a debate 
of that kind. The important thing is 
that after Christianizing the empire, 
Constantine offered the church a deal 
from which it has been suffering ever 
since. The clergy were to be exempt 
from taxes and any requirement to 
serve in the military. The church was 
allowed to set up a separate court 
system of its own. Church authorities 
were given the right to hold property. 

From that time on, the church was 
used to support the Roman Empire, 
and whole Roman legions were 
baptized en masse and sent into 
battles for the sake of the empire. The 
state used the church to justify its 
own existence and power. That is 
the legacy of Constantine. In the 
1,500 years of history since then, it 
has been difficult for the church to 
resist the temptation of baptizing the 
secular state. 

Our witness is to the world. We 
must witness to the values of our 
culture. As the Phillips translation 
puts it: "Don't let the world around 
you squeeze you into its own mold, 
but let Cod remold your minds from 
within, so that you may prove in 
practice that the plan of God for you 
is good, meets all his demands and 
moves toward the goal of true ma- 
turity." (Romans 12:2, Phillips.) 

Today we must examine what it 
means not to be conformed to 20th- 
century culture in America. A church 
that is the captive of the culture, 
or a message that merely echoes the 
values of the society, cannot be 
truly evangelistic or truly biblical. We 

cannot be the salt of the earth under 
such circumstances. We cannot be 
the light of the world unless our 
ultimate obedience is to Jesus Christ 
rather than to the values of the world 
or the state. Too often we have let 
those values go unquestioned. We 
hesitate to confront the problems of 
materialism, militarism, or racism, and 
in this hesitation we run the danger 
of equating the American way with 
the Christian way of life, flagrantly 
disobeying the command, "Be not 
conformed to this world." 

A Vision of the Future 

Lastly, we must offer the world a 
vision of its future built upon God's 
promised kingdom. We must, how- 
ever, also have the spiritual resources 
necessary to bring such a Kingdom 
into being. We cannot give out more 
than what we possess. 

Our strength comes through prayer. 
It comes through reading and study- 
ing the Scripture. It comes through 
sharing our faith and love and 
demonstrating our faith by works. The 
Lord said that the world would know 
that we are his disciples by our 
works. By the catechisms we recite, 
by the church we belong to? No. The 
world will know we are his disciples 
by the way we love one another. 
We have to have an inner vitality, 
the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, to 
be able to love one another so that 
we can reach not only to the needs 
of one another but also to the com- 
munity and the world about us. 

Today we need a "confessing 
church," a body of people who con- 
fess Jesus as Lord and are prepared 
to live by their confession. Lives lived 
under the Lordship of Jesus Christ 
at this point in our history may well 
be at odds with the values of society, 
the abuses of political power. We 
need those who try to honor the 
claims of their discipleship, who are 
continually being transformed by 
Jesus Christ. 

Let us be Christ's messengers of 
reconciliation and peace, giving our 
lives over to the power of his love. 
Only then can we soothe the wounds 
of war and renew the face of the 
earth and all mankind. □ 


At Sedalia, Missouri 

he ©huPG^ (§oe<§ to tf?e Paip 

A STATE FAIR, as almost everyone knows, is "dif- 
ferently the same" year after year. One expects 
to find sprawl and blare, hawkers and barkers, 
carefully groomed livestock, carnival rides, thundering 
motors, and thudding hooves. In short, a place to go for 
a good time. 

What business can the church possibly have amid 
thousands of fun-seekers on the fairgrounds? 

More than you would think, according to the Rev. 
Melvin E. West, Missouri director of Creative Ministries 
of The United Methodist Church, who is completing 
plans for another "exhibit" on the state fairgrounds at 
Sedalia this August under auspices of the Missouri Coun- 
cil of Churches. 

"The church has every reason, even the responsibility, 
to be present when God's people are celebrating his 
abundant love," Mr. West says. "A state fair is an offering. 
Hundreds of thousands of persons select the best that 
Cod's gifts have enabled them to produce, and they offer 
the resultant product at the fair." 

Fair time, he points out, "is a celebration of the harvest 

which expresses gratitude for God's grace and the bounty 
of the land. A strong thread of history runs between the 
Hebrew who took the best of his flock to the Temple and 
the 4-H boy who selects the top pig from his litter to 
'take to the fair.' " 

There is fellowship and communion, also, between 
people who "tire, grow thirsty, judge the livestock, and 
cheer the race driver" — or, as Mr. West says, "stand in 
silent awe at the beauty of a prize-winning rose." 

Farmers and city dwellers alike "go to fairs expecting 
to see demonstrated the latest products and techniques. 
They want to see and experience that which will improve 
life for them." 

The four themes the church can emphasize — celebra- 
tion of the harvest, offering, communion, and witnessing 
— are shared each year with thousands who visit the big 
red-and-white-striped tent at Sedalia. Here they find 
relaxation and inspiration. There's ice water, soft drinks, 
films, and live musical entertainment. Adjoining the tent 
is a mobile trailer stocked with books, pamphlets, 
plaques, posters, and other salable items of a religious 

Visitors at the Missouri State Fair move from 

a trailer, where religious items are sold (opposite 

page), into a tent where a musical program 

is in progress. At right, youngsters are interested in 

a goat at the church's Heifer Project booth. 

Standing is the Rev. Melvin West, state director 

of the project to fight hunger abroad. 

nature, proceeds going toward support of the Lake of the 
Ozarks Parish Ministry. 

Meanwhile, throughout the fairgrounds, carefully 
selected lay persons are stationed — not to be pushy — 
but to give warm Christian witness whenever the oppor- 
tunity presents itself. And not far away from the church 
tent is a demonstration of the Heifer Project, which 
Mr. West directs in Missouri, that provides several ship- 
ments of livestock each year to countries where hunger 
and poverty abound. 

After many years of working in the funeral home, the 
hospital, the church building, and the home, the church 
is only beginning to learn how to become effective 
where people are "having fun." For it has learned that 
it can inform, witness, provide inspiration, and — among 
other things — expose a large number of persons to a new 
idea, a new ministry, or a new movement. 

In a manner of speaking, the church is going under 
canvas again, not in old-time revival style, but in an 
expanding effort to help people see the fair itself as an 
important part of one's total spiritual life. 

— Herman B. Teeter 

Jesus was a Jew, but, incongruously, Christians for centuries have been taught to hate 

his people. Now, almost 20 centuries since his birth, Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox churches 

are rejecting the use of biblical teachings as the basis for anti-Semitism. 

ChE 2,000il- VEA* 

By Leonard C. Yaseen 

Chairman, Interreligious Affairs Commission 
American Jewish Committee 

IN A LITTLE MORE than a quarter century all Christen- 
dom will celebrate a historic event — the 2,000th year 
since the birth of Jesus. His life was tragically brief. 
His Crucifixion with two common thieves was witnessed 
only by his mother, a handful of followers, and mocking 
Roman soldiers. Yet his death has profoundly influenced 
the course of history. 

Missionaries for Christ have traversed the globe; im- 
mense cathedrals have been constructed in his name; 
sculptures, paintings, and murals have been dedicated to 
his eternal glorification. The grim instrument of his 
execution, the cross, has been lovingly symbolized in 
billions of gold, silver, stone, and wood reproductions. 

Existence in an earlier, troubled world meant struggling 
without dignity or security, and this created a fertile 
atmosphere for the spiritual comfort inherent in the 
teachings of Christ. The conquest of paganism was slow 
but relentless, and the new religion flourished. Today 
some 900 million Christians constitute powerful religious 
bodies dominating North and South America, Europe, 
Australia, portions of Asia and Africa, and segments of 
the Middle East. 

As we approach the year 2000, many denominations 
devoted to Christ worship him in separate ways, lead- 
ing frequently to cruel divisiveness. But one all-pervasive 
attitude persists, shared by practically every denomina- 
tion, and that is denigration of Jews. 

Christians embrace Jesus but, incongruously, have been 
taught to despise his people. For Jesus was a humble 
Jew. His name is Semitic, he was circumcised, spoke 
Aramaic, and lived and died as a Jew. Every act of his 
life, including the Last Supper (Passover), was in the 
Jewish tradition. The unleavened bread and wine used 
in the Christian Sacrament are Jewish in origin. 

Jewish teachings of 3,000 years before Christ's birth 

are repeated in Christian services today, such as these 
from his celebrated Sermon on the Mount: 
"Blessed are the poor in spirit, 
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 

"Blessed are the meek, 
for they shall inherit the earth. 

"Blessed are the pure in heart, 
for they shall see God. 

"Blessed are the peacemakers, 
for thev shall be called sons of God." 
—Matthew 5:3, 5, 8, and 9 
Christianity was born of the synagogue. Father Edward 
H. Flannery writes in his book The Anguish of the jews: 
". . . the Synagogue looked upon the new movement as 
just another Jewish sect. The first Christian church, full 
of zeal and fervor, was a Jewish church in leadership, 
membership, and worship; and it remained within the 
precincts of the Synagogue." 

Dean Krister Stendahl of the Harvard Divinity School 
says, "The Golden Rule was not the invention of Jesus, 
but of his predecessor, a great Pharisee and scribe by 
the name of Hillel." 

Did Christ himself ever denounce Judaism? Jesus was 
not a Christian. He never heard the term. He would be 
astonished at the magnificence of a cathedral but would 
be very much at home in a synagogue. In the modern 
world he would be unwelcome in many Christian homes, 
golf and yacht clubs. 

Did the Jews as a nation reject Jesus? Most Jews did 
not live in Palestine at the time of Jesus and thus were 
unaware of his existence. The people of Israel, con- 
stantly beset by hostile armies, had been continuously 
dispersed over a period of 500 years before Christ's 
birth, and only a small minority lived in the Holy Land. 

The historical fact is that fellow Jews with whom he 
came in contact loved and accepted him. Every one of 
Christ's 12 disciples was a Jew. Of the 12, only one — 
Judas — deceived him, and he later committed suicide 
rather than live. How then could the charge be leveled 
that Jews as a whole rejected Christ? 

Did the Jews crucify Christ? Actually, Jews were the 
crucified, not the crucifiers! During Roman rule, thou- 

sands of other Jews besides Christ suffered a similar 
fate. One hundred years before Christ, 2,000 were put 
to the cross by the Romans in a single week! Jesus was 
sentenced by Pontius Pilate, under Roman authority, and 
was executed by Roman soldiers for proclaiming himself 
the Messiah or "King of the Jews." His actions were 
considered outright rebellion against Rome, a crime 
punishable under its law by crucifixion. Undoubtedly, 
Caiaphas and other high Jewish priests feared and turned 
against him, but the mass of simple people were in op- 
position to these leaders (Mark 11:18; John 11:47-48). 

In contrast to the Jewish masses, a few religious 
leaders, zealous in their positions, perhaps did have 
some responsibility for the death of Christ. Are genera- 
tions which follow collectively accountable for acts com- 
mitted by individuals thousands of years ago? How 
would you feel about something that happened in your 
own family 100 generations back! You may be affected 
by them, but are you answerable for deeds of even your 
grandfather or father? 

The fact is that nothing in Jewish custom, patterns of 
behavior, or religious or civil attitudes points to the in- 
volvement of the "Jewish race" in the Romans' outra- 
geous treatment of Christ. Furthermore, their geographic 
dispersion would have made a "national" Jewish policy 
physically impossible. 

Gospels Not History 

While the New Testament represents the inspired word 
of God for believing Christians, the Gospels are not in- 
tended to be a history book in the secular sense, a 
viewpoint held by many Christian scholars. The primary 
interest of John, Mark, Matthew, and Luke was to enlist 
converts to the new religion. The eminent Catholic 
writer, Father Joseph Bonsirven, wrote, "The evangelists 
did not intend to write an accurate history as we under- 
stand it today, but to create a vehicle of demonstration." 
Father Xavier Leon-Dufour said: "The evangelists do not 
seem to have wanted to be historians in our sense of 
the word . . . the Gospels must be read as examples of 
their literary genre — written to stimulate and reinforce 
faith. In other words, rather than history, their accounts 
were essentially religious instruction." 

But ecclesiastical teachings, rightly or wrongly, do 
become part of the historical process. Jules Isaac, in 
The Teaching of Contempt, asserts: "Christian theology, 
once started in this direction, never stopped. ... It has 
repeated and propagated these mythical arguments tire- 
lessly, with methodical thoroughness, through all the 
powerful means at its disposal for hundreds upon hun- 
dreds of years, its thousands and thousands of voices in- 
doctrinating each successive generation. . . . The myths 
have eventually taken on the shape and consistency of 
facts . . . actually accepted as though they were authen- 
tic history. They have become an integral part of Chris- 
tian thinking." 

In the fourth century St. John Chrysostom, with other 
"historians," laid the foundation for succeeding genera- 
tions of malevolence: "Are they [Jews] not inveterate 
murderers, destroyers, men possessed by the devil — 
debauchery and drunkenness have given them the man- 
ners of the pig and lusty goat. They know only one 

Typical of Christian efforts against anti-Semitism 
is this illustration from a text for Roman Catholic 
children. It stresses lesus' Jewish background. 

thing, to satisfy their gullets, get drunk, and maim one 
another. . . . Indeed they have surpassed the ferocity of 
wild beasts for they murder their offspring and immolate 
them to the devil. The synagogue? ... a house of pros- 
titution, a caravan of brigands, a repair of wild beasts, 
the domicile of the devil, an assembly of criminals." 

Inflammatory words create explosive reactions in im- 
pressionable, uninformed minds. "Saintly" distortions 
like Chrysostom's sealed the doom of Jews down through 
the dark ages of history. Innocent mortals by the tens of 
millions have been vilified, slain, purged, burned, and 
gassed with less feeling than if they were cattle — in the 
name of Jesus Christ, another Jew. 

The flow of venom has lessened but never ceased. 
Accusations of ritual murder, using the blood of gentile 
children, desecrating the Host in the Mass, destruction 
of Christian literature, are still repeated— ridiculous con- 
cepts indeed for people whose love of children, respect 
for religion and law, and devotion to education and 
learning is certainly no less than that of any other reli- 
gious group. 

Malcolm Muggeridge, in his outstanding series of es- 

July 1973 TOGETHER 27 

says titled lesus Rediscovered, says, "Terrible things have 
been done in his name; the doctrine of unworldliness 
which he preached has been twisted to serve worldly 
purposes; the cross on which he died, besides inspiring 
some of the noblest lives which have ever been lived, 
and some of the noblest thoughts and creations of man, 
has also been enforced with the rack and the whip, and 
driven home with the sword." 

Violence, once begun, knows no stopping. Savagery 
directed against the People of the Book has all too often 
escalated into fury convulsing whole nations. 

A Reversal of Direction 

Sincere Christian leaders now are beginning to dis- 
courage the dissemination of ancient myths and age-old 
distortions. They recognize that Christianity has no need 
to degrade any other religion in order to validate itself. 
In recent years, Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Greek 
Orthodox bodies have rejected and condemned Chris- 
tian use of biblical teachings as the basis for anti- 

From the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati 
comes this statement: "The Jewish people is not collec- 
tively guilty of the passion and death of Jesus Christ, nor 
of the rejection of Jesus as Messiah. The Jewish people is 
not damned, nor bereft of its election. Their suffering, 
dispersion, and persecution are not punishments for the 
Crucifixion or the rejection of Jesus." 

A statement from the Lutheran Church in America sees 
the negative role of the Jews and their leaders in the 
execution of Jesus as "one of the germs of anti-Semitism 
within the New Testament." And it adds: "The Gospels 
picture Jesus as a sharp critic of his own people. In so 
doing he does what the prophets of old and the Phari- 
sees and Essenes of his own time had been doing just 
as sharply within the Jewish community. But somehow 
something becomes very different when these very same 
words are read in the Christian community as state- 
ments about the Jews and against the Jews. Christians 
should make it clear that there is no biblical or theologi- 
cal basis for anti-Semitism. Supposed theological or bib- 
lical bases for anti-Semitism are to be examined and 

A United Methodist document, adopted by the 1972 
General Conference, is similar: "Jews . . . have been vic- 
tims of systematic oppression and injustice. . . . There- 
fore, in order to continue Jewish and Christian efforts 
for the common cause of mankind, it is not enough for 
contemporary Christians to be aware of our common 
origins. Christians must also become aware of that his- 
tory in which they have deeply alienated the Jews. They 
are obligated to examine their own implicit and explicit 
responsibility for the discrimination against and for 
organized extermination of Jews, as in the recent past. 
The persecution by Christians of Jews throughout cen- 

turies calls for clear repentance and resolve to repudiate 
past injustice and to seek its elimination in the present." 

These and other Christian groups also have established 
guidelines for dialogues at local levels that can create 
better understanding and improved relationships in 
pluralistic societies. The United Methodist Church has 
suggested that conversations with members of the Jewish 
faith be initiated through an ecumenical framework. The 
Lutheran Council in the U.S.A. suggests "educational 
visits" to advance mutual understanding of artistic and 
liturgical tradition, scholarly lectures and discussions by 
experts in biblical, historical, and theological studies. 

The late Archbishop Paul F. Leibold of the Archdiocese 
of Cincinnati said: "Our objective is understanding. We 
don't have to agree on everything. Friends don't always 
agree. We do not ask you to try to understand us fully, 
but . . . that you will help us to understand you." 

What Individuals Can Do 

Enlightened Christian leaders are aggressively pro- 
claiming the unassailable premise that to be a good 
Christian one cannot espouse anti-Semitism. How can 
you, as an individual Christian, cast out unreasoning 
prejudice when it has been part of your conscious or 
subconscious early environment? 

You can start by talking with your clergyman for better 
understanding, initiating changes in business hiring prac- 
tices, helping to ease private-club restrictions, arranging 
meetings with all faiths for informal discussions at your 
home, scrutinizing questionable causes that seek con- 
tributions for rabble-rousing purposes, and suggesting 
changes in ecclesiastical or literary material that offends. 

You also can play an important role in developing 
values in the younger generations of your own family. 
You can guide young people in exploring the common 
roots oi Christianity and Judaism; give them the knowl- 
edge to reject bigotry. Christians and Jews together must 
help communicate that knowledge to others. Why? Be- 
cause today anti-Semitism and all prejudice are luxuries 
that mankind can no longer afford. Modern weapons of 
destruction triggered by such hostility can mushroom 
into universal conflagration. 

The year 2000 will have deeper significance for all of 
us if we recall the words of Julien Green, written in 
France a decade ago: ". . . there is no escaping the fact 
that we Christians are almost all responsible in degrees 
which vary mysteriously from one soul to the next, ac- 
cording to our capacity for understanding; and Jesus' 
passion continues to be acted out night and day in the 
world . . . 

"We cannot raise our hand against a Jew without strik- 
ing with the same blow him who is the man par excel- 
lence and, at the same time, the flower of Israel; and it 
is Jesus who suffered in the concentration camps; it is 
always he, his suffering is never ended. Ah, to be done 
with all this, and to begin all over again! To meet on the 
morning of the Resurrection and to clasp Israel to our 
hearts, weeping, without a word. For after Auschwitz, 
only tears can have meaning. Christian, wipe the tears 
and the blood from the face of your Jewish brother, and 
the countenance of your Christ will shine upon you 
both." □ 

The Grudge 

By Norma J. Brockus 

THE CHURCH was small and its 
members tried to keep the build- 
ing in good repair. But the floor, 
once new hardwood, was dingy and 
ugly from long use. In order to save 
money, members of the congrega- 
tion had decided to refinish it. 

Instead of long pews the audi- 
torium contained 144 individual 
wooden chairs with iron legs screwed 
to the floor. All the chairs were re- 
moved for the floor refinishing, but 
no one wanted to screw them down 
again after the job was done. 

My dad, who drives a bus for the 
county high school, was exhausted 
the night they called him to help. 
Still he loaded up his tools, and I 
was allowed to tag along with him 
to the church. 

Dad is a quiet, deep-thinking per- 
son, and as usual he went about the 
work quickly and quietly that eve- 
ning. One of the men — I'll call him 
Mr. Brown — misunderstood Dad's 
quietness and conjured the mistaken 
idea that Dad would rather not have 
him there. 

He carried the grudge with him. 
He told his ideas about Dad to any 

who would listen, and the more he 
talked, the bigger the molehill grew 
until it became a mountain. 

Sunday, after the morning services, 
Dad offered his hand to Mr. Brown 
who brushed past in angry indiffer- 
ence. I turned quickly away, but not 
before I saw the hurt in Dad's eyes. 
Many times after that I saw Dad's 
hand reach out in a futile gesture of 
friendship and forgiveness. 

Terry, Mr. Brown's only son, began 
giving Dad trouble on the bus. Mr. 
Brown sought fault in my father and 
continued his campaign of slander. 
As the months passed I began to 
wonder if Dad was going to forgive 
this man "seventy times seven." 

Then late one night, after a par- 
ticularly trying day, the telephone 
rang, waking us. We were apprehen- 
sive as Dad picked up the receiver. 

"Hello." I didn't dare breathe. 

"Oh, what's the trouble, Terry?" 
I glanced uneasily at Mom and saw 
her lips set in a firm line. 

"Sure, Terry, I'll tell him. And 
don't worry. He'll be there soon." 

Dad hung up and turned to us. 
"Terry's car quit on him in Blue 

Ridge. He wants me to tell his dad 
to come after him." 

At last, I thought, here was Dad's 
chance to get even. I eagerly waited 
for him to sit down and gloat over 
his victory. Instead, he started toward 
the back door. 

"Daddy, where are you going?" 

"Why, up to Mr. Brown's." 

"Daddy, he doesn't even speak to 
you." My words fell idly as the door 
closed upon them. 

I slumped into a chair as mother 
sank wearily upon the divan. Neither 
of us wanted to go back to bed 
until we learned what happened. 

I realized the turmoil that must 
have gone through Terry's mind be- 
fore he called. Since ours was the 
only telephone for miles, he had no 
other alternative. He knew very well 
how his father felt — and Terry him- 
self had given Dad a pretty rough 
time. How could he ask Dad to be a 
good neighbor now? How many 
times had he lifted the receiver be- 
fore making that call for help? 

As time passed I began to worry. 
What could be taking Dad so long? 
Visions of Mr. Brown running him 
off the place ran through my mind 
as our clock ticked off minutes that 
seemed like hours. 

Then came the crunch of wheels 
on gravel, and soon Dad's footsteps 
thumped into the house. 

"Mr. Brown was happy to know 
Terry was all right," Dad said as he 
hung up his coat. "He was pretty 
worried about the boy." 

"But John, what took you so 
long?" Mom asked. 

"The tire on Mr. Brown's car was 
flat and Terry had his spare, so I 
loaned him ours and helped him 
change it." 

Mom was smiling with relief as 
she teased, "It would serve you right 
if you have a flat and have to walk 

"Can't possibly happen. Mr. 
Brown is stopping by to take me to 
work. Since we work in town he 
couldn't see any sense to both of us 

Then, trying to act firmly, he said 
to me, "Hey, it's past your bedtime." 

The next Sunday I saw Mr. Brown 
reach out and clasp Dad's hand in 
the firmest, friendliest handshake you 
ever saw. In simple forgiveness and 
patience my father had made a 
friend out of one who could have 
remained his worst enemy. □ 

July 1973 TOGETHER 29 

Galilee Church ...A 

"The good Lord sent her to us," say Galilee Church members of their pastor, the Rev. Leontine Kelly. 
She is shown in the new sanctuary of the once-struggling church, tenaciously Methodist for 706 years. 

Text by Connie Myer / Pictures by George P. Miller 

ONE SUNDAY morning a few years ago, the preach- 
er's only audience in the old church was an in- 
quisitive squirrel. Even on a good Sunday in 
those days it was not unusual for attendance to total no 
more than 15 persons, says William Elmore. 

Mr. Elmore, now 87, is the local lay preacher who for 
60 years helped keep open the sagging doors of cen- 
tury-old Galilee United Methodist Church in the isolated 
community of Edwardsville in the "Northern Neck" of 

Galilee Church was organized in 1867 by blacks who 
had been given a plot of land after the Civil War. It was 
affiliated with the Washington Conference of the Meth- 

odist Episcopal Church and remained tenaciously Meth- 
odist as the sparsely settled fishing and farming com- 
munity drowsed through good times and bad, mostly 
the latter. During all those years the church had never 
had a full-time ordained minister. 

Things began to change about five years ago with the 
arrival of the Rev. ). David Kelly. Mr. Kelly had given 
up a successful pastorate in Richmond, Va., to devote 
the remainder of his life to rural black people in the 
Edwardsville area where he and his wife planned even- 
tually to retire. 

Then, unexpectedly — after less than two years in Ed- 
wardsville — Mr. Kelly died of cancer. Again, Galilee 

)ream Comes True 

"As the center of our community," says Mrs. 
Kelly, "the new church really fills a need for us. It has 
helped our people see things work as they work together, 
realizing their ability to do for themselves." 

Church was without an ordained, resident pastor. 

Mr. Kelly left plans for building a new church, and 
his widow was determined to bring her late husband's 
dream to reality. 

Today, Galilee United Methodist Church is a dynamic 
element in the lives of Edwardsville's black community. 
The tumbledown old church which could claim no more 
than 50 members has been supplanted by a new red-brick 
sanctuary with 170 adult members and a lively week- 
night prayer service that consistently is attended by 60 
or more adults and children. 

The pastor, of course, is the Rev. Leontine T. Kelly, 
widow of the Rev. J. David Kelly. 

"After David's death, Galilee Church was for a while 
at a very low ebb," explained the Rev. Joseph T. Carson, 
Jr., district superintendent. "I told the people at Edwards- 
ville there were three possibilities. They could get a 
retired white minister; they could attempt to get a 
black minister who probably could come to Edwardsville 
only on weekends; or they might persuade Mrs. Kelly to 
serve as their preacher." 

For several good reasons members of the congregation 
were unanimous in wanting Mrs. Kelly. A vital, energetic, 
and magnetic person, she was a certified lay speaker in 
The United Methodist Church. She had been a high- 
school social-studies teacher, the first black teacher in 
the area's Northumberland County High School. In ad- 
dition, her father and a brother were Methodist ministers. 

Mrs. Kelly was well aware of the problems ahead. 
Edwardsville was little more than a gas station, two 
stores, a post office — and the old church. Situated on a 
peninsula between the Rappahannock and Potomac 
rivers, it isn't even large enough to be called a village. 
The people live in houses situated at the ends of rutted, 
sandy lanes which snake through cornfields. The homes, 
most without plumbing, are small and modest. For a 
century or more fishing, fish processing, and farming had 
been the main occupations, as they are today. Jobs are 
seasonal so that many persons — mostly the blacks — are 
unemployed for long periods of the year. At least half 
of the blacks in the county earn less than $1,000 a year. 

Mrs. Kelly made up her mind. She obtained a local 
preacher's license and was ordained a deacon. Mean- 
while, money for the $65,000 new church was coming 
in from a number of sources: members' pledges and a 
gift and a mortgage loan from the National Division 
of the United Methodist Board of Missions, plus confer- 
ence and district mission specials. 

"What a thrill it was when the white architect came 
from Richmond and asked the people what they wanted 
in their new church!" Mrs. Kelly recalls. "The first thing 
they asked was if they could have toilets in the church. 
They'd just never thought that such a fine building could 
be theirs." 

Black families were so enthusiastic they pledged extra 
money, in addition to their previous building pledges, 
for 20 pews. The spotless church kitchen, with its modern 
sinks and refrigerator, is a delight to the women, many 
of whom come from homes without running water. 

During the fishing season, some Galilee members go 
to work in processing plants as early as 3 a.m., but they 
still wouldn't miss the Thursday-night prayer service. 

Galilee United Methodist is alive with gospel songs, 
prayers, preaching, and social activity. And something 
of this new spirit has spread into the community itself. 

Speaking out at local and district meetings is giving 
Galilee members more self-confidence. Lay leader Her- 
bert Middleton, a skilled auto mechanic who formerly 
worked off the peninsula, decided that "if we could 
build a new church, I could build my own garage." Now 

July 1973 TOCETHER 3"| 

Mrs. Kelly, who is working on her degree at a Presbyterian seminary in Richmond, prays with 87-year-old 
William Elmore, the lay preacher who for almost 60 years kept the old Calilee Church from closing its doors. 

he is his own boss in the community where his family 
and friends live. One young couple was inspired to build 
a better house. And in 1971, for the first time, Galilee 
could claim eight high-school graduates. 

Impetus for young people to stay in school and go on 
to college has come from Mrs. Kelly's influence. When 
she helped get a college scholarship for a granddaughter 
of Mr. Elmore, the 87-year-old lay preacher, Mrs. Elmore 
wept and prayed all the way up the steps of the modern 
dormitory where her granddaughter would live. 

"Martha Elmore is now a sophomore at St. Paul's Col- 
lege in Lawrenceville and is on the dean's list," says Mrs. 
Kelly. "She's doing great. So many good things are 

Things hardly dreamed of five years ago are occurring 
in and around Galilee Church. The women entertain a 
large district meeting; a youth fellowship takes the initia- 
tive in showing films on drugs and family planning before 
the membership; a United Methodist Men's Club is 
chartered; the church school grows by leaps and bounds, 
two teachers for every class; Boy Scout and Cub Scout 
troops are organized; there's a sports program on the 
empty fields nearby and Ping-Pong in the basement. 

"The rural church can be a vital factor in people's 
lives," Mrs. Kelly declares. "It can lead people to change. 
Certainly the black preacher has an opportunity to be a 
missioner in the community." 

Knowledgeable in both church and governmental 
affairs, she is an at-large member of the Division of 
Health and Welfare Ministries of the United Methodist 
Board of Global Ministries. She works closely with the 
Northumberland County welfare office and confers with 
a high-school counselor on problems of black students. 

Galilee Church maintains "a fellowship relationship" 
with Shiloh Baptist Church, seven miles away, a more 
prosperous church which at one time boasted the largest 
rural congregation in America. "A new young minister 
there has worked with the Urban League," says Mrs. 
Kelly, "and he has a real understanding of our com- 
munity needs. He has been able to get a housing de- 
velopment program started . . . one family in my church 
is living there." 

Aside from her social concerns, Mrs. Kelly finds her 
"adventure in faith" at Galilee United Methodist Church 
"one of the most exciting things in my life. This church 
made me a preacher. I don't want to be anything else." 

Her success is reflected in a comment from the Rev. J. 
Melvin Trower, a retired white United Methodist minis- 
ter who faithfully attends Galilee with his wife: 

"If )ohn Wesley were to come back today and there 
was one church he could visit, I'd tell him to go to Mrs. 
Kelly's Thursday-night prayer service." □ 

you Asked. 

Has the church sought to do anything about the 
cutbacks by the federal government of support to 
community-action and social-welfare programs. 

At the spring meeting of the United Methodist 
Board of Global Ministries in St. Louis, Mo., the 
board's National Division adopted a resolution 
expressing concern on national budget priorities. 
The division's major concern was over cutbacks of 
$1.5 billion each in welfare, medicare-housing, and 
agriculture. While acknowledging the current 
administration's intention to ease the cutbacks with 
a revenue-sharing plan, the division expressed fear, 
saying that this would not make up for the cuts 
and that its present guidelines were inadequate, 
both for determining how the money will be spent 
and truly enabling minorities and the powerless. 

The division pledged itself to three goals: (1) a 
reordering of U.S. priorities through continued study 
of the 1974 budget; (2) stepped-up efforts to make 
Congress and the President aware of the need for 
increased monies for the nation's health, education, 
and welfare; and (3) bringing United Methodists 
and others to coalesce around similar concerns. 

— Negail R. Riley, Executive Secretary 

Office of Urban Ministries 

United Methodist Board of Global Ministries 

What is the basic difference between a Christian 
and a non-Christian? 

Two major differences: quality of relationships (with 
Christ and with people) and actions (the fruits of 
the Spirit). To put it simply, a Christian is as he 
thinks, acts, and feels. In the final analysis it is by 
our fruits that we are known, not by our label 
or by our words. In the Gospel of John, Jesus 
speaks both of the nature and the depth of this 
relationship: "I am the vine, and you are the 
branches. He who dwells in me, as I dwell in him, 
bears much fruit; for apart from me you can do 
nothing." (John 15:5, NEB.) 

— Bishop lames S. Thomas 

Lately we have heard very little on the subject of 
race in The United Methodist Church. What is the 
basic role and function of the Commission on 
Religion and Race in the 1972-76 quadrennium? 

Basically two directions — minority empowerment 
and interracial reconciliation as approved by the 
1972 General Conference. The commission will be 
working to develop relationships among races and 

ethnic groups of the church which reflect unity, 
justice, and reconciliation. 

Aware that there can be no authentic reconcilia- 
tion without liberation and that liberation is both 
spiritual and physical, the commission will be pri- 
marily concerned with enabling groups to become 
viable means in their communities through the 
Self-determination Fund, with equitable mergers of 
annual conferences, and with the ministerial short- 
age that has become a crisis in black United 
Methodism. — Woodie W. White 

Executive Secretary 
United Methodist Commission on Religion and Race 

We have read much about Key 73 but have seen 
almost no evidence of it in our community. Please 
describe its goals and how it got started. 

Key 73 is best described as an all-out evangelistic 
effort which seeks to confront people more force- 
fully with the gospel of jesus Christ mainly through 
proclamation, demonstration, witness, ministry, 
word, and deed. 

The idea came into being more than five years 
ago when the Southern Baptist Convention's 
evangelistic staff and the Billy Graham Evangelistic 
Association brought together some 40 churchmen 
at a meeting near Key Bridge in Arlington, Va. The 
idea of embracing the various denominations in a 
combined effort caught on. More than 50 denomina- 
tions are participating, including Roman Catholics. 
The only major denominational holdouts have been 
the United Presbyterians and the Episcopalians, 
though regional and local groups of both churches 
are involved. 

Whether or not communities are being affected 
by Key 73 is largely determined by the area's re- 
ligious structure and the desire of leaders to work 
together. — Your Editors 

Have you a question about the Christian faith, the 
church, a social issue, a personal or family prob- 
lem? Perhaps You Asked . . . can provide an answer 
from our regular contributors, Bishop James S. 
Thomas or Dr. Dale White, or from some other 
church leader. Send questions to You Asked, c/o 
Together, 1661 N. Northwest Hwy., Park Ridge, III. 
60068. — Your Editors 

July 1973 TOGETHER 33 


Thoughts on Salvation 

By L. David Harris, Pastor, Otterbein United Methodist Church, Dover, Pa. 

I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly. 

— John 70:70 

RECENTLY while in the hospital, I began thinking 
about this sentence from John's Gospel and won- 
dering just what Jesus meant by it. What is abun- 
dant life? I asked myself what was abundant about lying 
flat on my back with tubes sticking in my veins, a raging 
fever, and new tests being administered every day to see 
what hope there was for me. 

Then several things happened. A minister came and 
prayed with me, and I found I still had much hope. I 
watched a fine comedian on television and discovered 
that I could still laugh. Nurses and doctors ministered 
kindly to me, get-well wishes came from friends and 
relatives, and I found I could still be appreciative. These 
were all signs of life — hope, laughter, and thankfulness. 
To be able to have these in the midst of discomfort 
spoke of abundance. 

These experiences helped convince me that Cod 
meant for us to be happy, free, whole persons. The con- 
cept is built into the biblical idea of salvation. 

Salvation. Saving. Savior. All are words that we have 
heard from our religious beginnings. We sing, pray, and 
preach about them. But what do they really mean? We 
know the Savior is one who brings salvation. But what 
does salvation mean? 

One of the most commonly used New Testament 
Creek words for salvation means to heal. The Savior is 
one who comes to heal and make whole that which is 
spiritually sick and disrupted. Jesus was called the Great 
Physician. He said he had come to the sick, not to the 

Saving also means delivering, liberating, and setting 
free. So there are two meanings at work here. The 
Savior is the one who heals and the one who sets free. 

Thus, salvation carries a far more profound meaning 
than we popularly give it. Too many preachers have yelled 
too many times that salvation simply means an escape 
from hell and an eternal reward in heaven. This gives 
too narrow a meaning to salvation, and it is a distortion 
of what is meant by eternal life. As Paul Ti Mich pointed 
out, "Eternal life is beyond past, present and future. We 
come from it, we live in its presence, we return to it." 

No one can deny that salvation has much to do with 
life after death. But salvation in its fullest and most real 


sense means to participate in a free, holy life in the here 
and now. It is to be healed of our sins, delivered from 
those things that make us miserable, and freed from 
those things that make us less than the persons we 
should be. The Lord's Prayer makes reference to it — 
"Deliver us from evil." Or, as many of us today might 
pray, "Deliver me from my hang-ups." 

To bring salvation into its fullest meaning, the church 
must be interested in two kinds of ministry — a ministry 
of rescue and a ministry of conservation. 

We know the first one well. Every evangelistic sermon 
seems directed at calling the lost to repentance. We 
rightly should ask persons to make a decision for Christ. 
Salvation of the lost is and ever was in Jesus' mind and 
heart — a true ministry of rescue. 

But considerably less attention is given to salvation 
from loss — the ministry of conservation, or what we 
might call the salvation of the saved. Many of us — in- 
deed, all of us — who have made a decision for Christ 
still desperately need the daily ongoing experience of 
salvation in our lives. We need constant healing and 
deliverance from those things which make us less than 

The question is not, Have you been saved? Instead it 
ought to be, Are you being saved? 

The ministry of conservation is aimed at keeping us 
for the Kingdom. It is aware that as long as we continue 
in our bigoted, prejudiced, greedy, selfish, unforgiving 
ways, the kingdom of God will never be ours regardless 
of how many decisions we have made for Christ. 

The decision for Christ is one which should be renew- 
able. It is not enough to have said yes to Christ ten 
years ago, five years ago, or even two weeks ago. One 
must say yes to Christ each day. If Paul were writing to 
the Corinthians today, I think he would plead the point 
this way: "For Christ's sake, open yourselves to God!" 

What he was saying was, "Let God heal you. Let him 
deliver you. Let him make you a free and whole person." 
Or, in religious words, "Let him save you." 

This ministry of healing and delivering has vibrations 
that can be felt. I have felt them in meetings of Cath- 
olics and Protestants losing their fears of one another 
and allowing themselves to become open to one another. 
This is salvation, a healing of spiritual ills. 

Our choir sang in an all-black church. As the walls 
fairly shook with the drumbeats and as the words of O 
Freedom! rang through the sanctuary, I saw whites who 
previously had been uncomfortable and perhaps insensi- 
tive to blacks come alive to their black brothers and 
sisters. Racial prejudice began to melt. Jesus was healing. 
Salvation of the saved was occurring. 

Preaching always is directed first at the "pillars" of 
the church, the committed individuals who are most 
sure of themselves. It says, "You need healing, you need 
delivering, and you need it now." 

Many churchgoers who made early decisions for Christ 
still have not learned to love. Some won't even speak 
to one another. Some of us carry grudges of years' stand- 
ing. Some simply refuse to forgive. One of the surest 
ways to go to hell is to believe that someone else is 
going there. The Bible is specific about this: "Judge not, 
that you be not judged." 

But we like to judge! We seem to find security when 

we can point at someone else. Who gave us the creden- 
tials to imitate the Almighty? Where did we get the 
authority to say that our ideas, our theology, our church, 
our doctrine, our morals are the only good ones and 
everyone else is wrong? Certainly not from God. He 
warns, "Judge not." 

This is not abundant life! It is pious hypocrisy that 
makes the individual miserable and inflicts his misery 
on everybody else. There are too many miserable people 
in the world already. 

God does not want us to be narrow! God does not 
want us to inflict our judgments upon others. He meant 
us to be happy, loving, cheerful, forgiving. These are 
qualities that lead to life abundant — a state of the spirit 
where even in adversity one can see beyond discomforts 
and be able to laugh, to love, and to hope. 

That, of course, is what the kingdom of God is all 
about — to be delivered from selfishness to openness, 
from making judgments of others to trusting them. 
Clarence Jordan called it the "God movement." I like 
the description. We have the labor movement, the youth 
movement, the women's liberation movement. Why not 
the God movement? 

Once the disciples came to Jesus quite distressed. 
They told him that another person not affiliated with 
them was doing miracles in his name. "Shall we stop 
him?" they asked. "Absolutely not!" came the reply. "If 
he's not against us, he is with us." 

Sometimes church members sit in worship services and 
view persons who are not members or regular attenders 
as outsiders. Let's set the record straight: Any person 
who steps inside the church is one of us — black, white, 
rich, poor, educated, or illiterate. 

We sing with enthusiasm, "We are one in the Spirit, 
We are one in the Lord, . . ." And that should be our 
goal. Naturally, we won't always agree. Catholics aren't 
about to become Protestants or vice versa. Some inde- 
pendents aren't about to affiliate with a denomination. 
Yet we all seek and move toward oneness. This bothers 
some who have set themselves up as judges of who is 
right and wrong. But judgments must be left to God. 
Only then are disagreements tolerated and understood. 

Ideally, the church should be easy to become part of 
and almost impossible to get out of, open on all sides 
day and night. John Wesley said about his first Method- 
ist churches: "The only condition required of those who 
seek admission to these societies is a desire to flee from 
the wrath to come and be saved from their sins." 

Today a good deal more is required. Personally, I 
favor the attitude suggested by the invitation to Holy 
Communion: "Ye that do truly and earnestly repent of 
your sins, and are in love and charity with your neigh- 
bors, and intend to lead a new life, following the com- 
mandments of God, and walking from henceforth in his 
holy ways: Draw near with faith, and take this holy 
Sacrament . . ." That really is enough. It meets a condition 
of formal simplicity, yet of spiritual challenge. 

As for the conservation of members, our care of one 
another in the church should become so loving, so con- 
stant, and so unwearying that no one will escape it nor 
want to. Pray for salvation. Salvation for the saved and 
the unsaved. We all need to be healed and delivered to a 
joyous, free, abundant life. □ 

July 1973 TOGETHER 35 

Condemned to 



SOME prominent marriage experts would tell you that 
my husband and I are not really happy. They would 
accuse us of living in a shell of "pseudointimacy" 
because Larry and I are "fight-phobic." 

When I learned that experts George R. Bach and Peter 
Wyden believe that couples like us are "locked in deadly 
contentment," I was troubled and decided to talk it 
over with my husband. 

"Larry," I said one evening as he wrestled on the 
floor with our five-year-old twin sons, "we're not happy. 
We should fight more." 

"You're telling me," he puffed as Paul, three, and 
Laura, two, tumbled into the match. "Then maybe we 
wouldn't have had four children in Vh years!" 

As usual, all I could do was laugh at him and at myself. 
Laughing is what has kept us mentally stable through 
the small crises that crowd every marriage. 

Take the first few months after the twins were born. 
We slept in shifts and ate TV dinners. We were tired to 
the point of exhaustion, and any attempt at humor was 

an effort — but an effort well worth making as we 
soon discovered. 

I remember one early morning when I had just finished 
feeding Dave and was crawling back into bed. Larry said 
sleepily, "So John finally woke up." 

"No, that was Dave," I said. "I thought you fed John." 

"No, I fed Dave." 

That was where we could have had a wonderful fight 
about lack of responsibility, disorganization, and all the 
rest. But Larry saved us by saying philosophically, "Well, 
I guess we know which one inherited my appetite." 

We were still laughing when John woke up half an hour 
later, and we can still laugh at the memory today, enjoy- 
ing it without reservation because there was no fighting 
attached to it. 

Our problems are no different from those of other 
young couples, of course. In-laws, for example. My 
mother horrified my ethical husband when she said that 
she had sent my brother in college a package of food 
labeled "educational material" — because the postage was 


July 1973 TOC.i 1HI R 

cheaper that way. Mother assured us with a twinkle in 
her eyes that after all my brother certainly couldn't study 
without proper nourishment. 

Afterwards Larry finally conceded, "I guess it's all right, 
but I'd hate to be the postman who delivers limburger 
cheese and aged salami!" 

We have our frustrations, but instead of "requesting 
a time and place" to fight over them, as Messrs. Bach 
and Wyden advise in The Intimate Enemy: How to Fight 
Fair in Love & Marriage (Morrow, $8.95, cloth; Avon, 
$1.25, paper), we try to laugh them off. 

If Larry is brave enough to ask about my day, I am the 
type who will answer, "Everything went fine." Now, Bach 
and Wyden say this is wrong because it means that we 
lead lives of monotony and self-deception. I can assure 
you that our lives are anything but monotonous, but let's 
see what would happen if we tried to follow the Bach 
and Wyden rules for marital fighting. 

Start with this evening. Larry is returning from a four- 
day scientific meeting, and he is going to notice a large 
deficit in our checking account. According to formula, 
Larry should tell me that he "has a bone to pick" with 
me and request a time and place to do it. Bach and 
Wyden suggest a boat as ideal since the fighting partners 
cannot escape. But we do not own a boat, nor do we 
know anyone who does. We probably would decide on 
our toy-cluttered living room. 

Next, we would have to set the time, since couples 
should fight "by appointment only." To screen out "dis- 
tractions" (interpreted in our house as children) we 
would have two choices: 6:30 a.m., before Laura gets 
up, and 11 p.m., after the children are all asleep. Or 
there's always three o'clock in the morning. Since Larry 
is not an early riser, and I cannot think in the middle of 
the night (ask John, who called for a drink of water and 
got the baby's bottle), we would decide on 11 p.m. 

Promptly at eleven, bleary-eyed, and still wet from 
giving the children their baths, Larry should say: 

"Now, what about that missing hundred dollars?" 

"Well, part of it went for the stitches in Paul's head," 
I would reply, having prepared my answers well in 

"Stitches!" Larry would exclaim. "Why don't you keep 
a closer eye on him?" 

This is where I could cry foul since he is deviating 
from the problems of money, but I will allow it because 
I have a ready defense. 

"I did," I would insist. "He fell right beside me in the 
flood from the dishwasher. That's where some more of 
the money went — to fix the dishwasher. More of it went 
to have the rug cleaned after the water flowed into the 
living room. Then there was the speeding ticket we got 
on our way to meet you at the airport. We were late 
because we couldn't find one of Dave's shoes. I think 
the policeman was going to let us go, but he got mad 
when Paul kept shouting, 'Peaceman got gun, gonna 
shoot us, gonna shoot us, Mommy!' He must have picked 
that up from television. And the television set broke, 
too, incidentally, right when . . ." 

And that is where our first argument would terminate, 
with Larry repeating, "Don't tell me. I'd rather not know. 
Just don't tell me." . . . Believe me, we are not deceiving 
ourselves about monotony. 

While it is true that Larry and I do not like to fight, 

and we believe that self-control is more virtuous than 
verbal argument, we are not "severely alienated" nor 
"deeply convinced that the other is mentally sick." On 
the contrary, we have found that sharing each other's 
sense of humor means that we must be sensitive and 
sympathetic to each other's viewpoint. This increases our 
compassion for one another. 

The art of laughing at yourself does not come naturally 
to most people; it has to be learned. But it can be 
learned just as you can learn to fight according to Bach- 
and-Wyden rules. All you need is a sense of humor and 
enough self-assurance to keep you from minding if you 
look momentarily foolish. A family of several small chil- 
dren helps, but it is not a necessity. 

There are numerous advantages of being able to laugh 
at oneself. It can even benefit a whole group. And while 
a fight can be final in some cases, as even Bach and 
Wyden warn, the person who has a sense of humor puts 
others at ease. 

Consider children. Imagine the effects on children if 
they are around when their parents are fighting — even 
if they are fighting according to the rules. Children 
usually take disagreements far more seriously than their 
parents do, and trying to keep them away from the 
action only adds to the problem of family disintegration 
that already threatens every family when each person 
has so many activities outside the home. 

When parents fight, the children lose. If parents laugh 
at themselves, the children may even pick up the habit 
themselves for they are great imitators. Parents who can 
laugh at themselves are likely to have warm relation- 
ships with their children, too. All this helps children 
develop an emotional resilience that will be a boon to 
them all their lives. 

Finally, I think that for a couple to put off a fight until 
a better time is as bad as punishing a child hours after 
a misdeed — it prolongs the anguish. 

Last Thursday evening I was putting our kite away 
when Laura fell down the front step. I laid the kite on 
the top of the car as I ran to her, and of course I forgot 
about it. Friday morning, as Larry left for work in the 
pouring rain, I heard a chorus of horns. Looking out, I 
saw my husband stopped by the side of the street, strug- 
gling to unwind the dragging kite which had attached 
itself to the rear bumper. I ran to help him, and when 
he saw me he laughed rather hollowly and said, "I'm 
trying very hard to think of something funny to say." 

We both started laughing in earnest then, and I sudden- 
ly realized how much easier it would have been for 
Larry to leave me in anguish waiting for the fight that 
would come that evening. I would have been irritable 
with the children all day, and not able to think of any- 
thing but my defense. Instead, we have another funny 

Finally, there is the small problem of a rule in the 
Bach and Wyden method of fighting which dictates that 
no one may "win." I think this only causes further resent- 
ment. Who wants to fight if you can't win? 

I don't feel that it is right to generalize and tell couples 
who like to fight that they should not fight, but I don't 
believe that couples are not happy unless they do. 
Learning to laugh at ourselves has worked for us, and 
if our marriage condemns us to contentment, I can only 
assure you that it is anything but deadly! 

July 1973 TOGETHER 37 



The editors' stand was very 
interesting in the editorial To Fear 
or to Trust? [May, page 1]. It is 
very easy for the editors to sit in 
their "ivory towers" and advise 
others to be less suspicious and to 
take more risks. Of course the 
editors are not the ones who are 
assaulted and robbed while driving 
a cab; they are not losing thousands 
of dollars a day to shoplifters. But 
others are, and that is the reason 
for tight security. 

Security measures being used 
today are not the result of witch- 
hunting and scapegoating but are 
based on past experience which 
has shown they are a necessity to 

Wayne, N.J. 


I commend you for the selection 
of letters printed in the April issue 
concerning conscientious objectors 
and draft evaders. [See Letters, 
page 34.] 

I definitely take exception to 
the position expressed by a retired 
brother minister to never let draft 
evaders come back. I, too, was in 
World War I, and when it did not 
turn out to be the "war to end all 
wars," the Lord showed me "a 
better way" — the way of love and 
forgiveness and truth. Unfortunately, 
after 50 years more of wars and 
bloodshed and devastation of God's 
green earth, there are still millions 
of Christians not yet wholly 
committed to Jesus Christ, the 
Prince of Peace. 

Retired Minister 
Bloomsburg, Pa. 

Send your letters to 


1661 N. Northwest Highway 

Park Ridge, III. 60068 


I was impressed with your article 
The Twelve Who Walked With 
Christ [May, page 42]. Being a 
sophomore at West Virginia 
Wesleyan, I have seen these statues 
many times, but I never really 
thought about them until I read this 

But something more impressive 
and beautiful is the love that the 
Christians on this campus share. 
Because of Christ, we grow as one 
body, united in Christ. We have our 
problems, but what Christian doesn't. 
But we are seeing more of God's 
grace and mercy every day. 

New Castle, Pa. 


I feel I should make a reply to 
the comments about hunting in the 
May issue. [See Say It!, page 19]. 

Here are some facts to absorb: 
There was no hunting in the 
Adirondacks last fall, due not to 
past severe winters but to an 
overkill of deer, especially doe. 
Trophy hunting is on the upswing; 
commercial greed is rampant. The 
seal has been slaughtered, the wolf 
hunted for his fur and the mountain 
goat for his horns. Even the bear 
has been endangered. Nongame 
birds like the owl and pelican have 
been shot for sport. 

Because of National Rifle 
Association opposition to strict 
gun-control laws, irresponsible and 
dangerous persons are carrying guns. 

What is character-building about 
stalking a wild animal, shooting it, 
and watching it die? How much 
more rewarding to tramp through 
the woods with camera and 
binoculars, observing God's creatures 
in their natural habitat. 

Westfield, N.Y. 


I was disturbed by the 
recognition given to Elva D. Sheets 
in People [April, page 36]. 
Certainly it is unusual that she has 
collected 2 million seashells, and I 
am sure that the collection is 
beautiful and fascinating. But the 
article stated that she caught the 
animals alive, then boiled them 
to maintain their natural color. How 
can a woman be praised for killing 
2 million animals? 

Mrs. Sheets stated that she hopes 
the museum will bring "an 

awareness and appreciation of the 
beauty of God's creation" to adults 
and youth. But is not the 
appreciation and preservation of life 
more important? 

Silver Spring, Md. 


You recently carried a news 
item about the news media and the 
restrictions being placed on them. 
[ See Broadcasters Warn of 
Government Information Muzzle, 
April, page 10.] 

Yes, we do have "the right to 
know," and we rely upon the news 
media to let us know. We also 
should be given the right to question 
the "facts" and the source of 
information. "A reliable source" or 
"an informed source" does not 
make the information and facts true. 
A man was kicked around during 
the last presidential election by the 
news media by "facts" that were 
never verified before reporting. 

I suggest that reporters of all news 
media meet certain qualifications 
and standards and be accountable 
for their articles before we give 
them immunity. 

We now have censorship of our 
right to know, not by the government 
but by the news media themselves. 
Of the hundreds of news items 
daily available, we read and see 
only what the news media want us 
to read and see, with their 
interpretation!?) or analysis!?). 

Metropo//s, ///. 


I have just finished reading 
Ecuador's Church — Very Much Alive 
[March, page 46] by Gordon L. 
Burgett. While I am not familiar with 
the efforts of the United Evangelical 
Church there, I do know something 
about the evangelical movement in 
that country. I have been in Ecuador 
and have a sister who has lived 
there more than 25 years. 

I am writing to protest Mr. 
Burgett's statement: ". . . dominant 
Protestantism, known to most 
Ecuadorians through HCJB, the 
powerful 'Voice of the Andes' radio 
network, preached a moralistic, 
'don't smoke, drink, dance, or swear' 

This appears to me to be a very 
narrow, snobbish, condescending, 
blanket judgment that has no basis 
in truth or fact. HCJB has literally 

38 July 1973 TOGETHER 

been a lifeline of hope and 
inspiration to evangelicals there and 
in other countries within reach of 
their broadcasts. The staff is highly 
trained and dedicated to the task 
of "heralding Christ Jesus blessings," 
and it seems to me that kind of 
criticism is divisive and unchristian. 
Neither my sister nor I has any 
connection with that great ministry, 
but know firsthand that it deserves 
the support of every Christian in 
Ecuador. I trust the rest of the article 
was based on more fact than the 
statement about station HCJB. 

Frankfort, Ky. 


A couple of years back in 
Together, Hegbert Clutter 
mentioned planting his garden by 
the right "phrase" of the moon. 
Last February 23, when the moon 
was in the right phrase, I planted a 
row of peas according to organic 
methods, then added a prayer for 
the right weather. I'd like to ask 
Brother Victor whether he thinks any 
one (moon, organic methods, prayer) 
or all three things can take credit 
for the fact that the plants are 
now six inches tall and growing fine. 
c/o Albert G. Teachman, Jr. 
Grants Pass, Oreg. 

We sent a copy of Uncle Zeke's 
letter to Bro. Clutter, who answered 
by return mail: "When I ast Bro. 
Viktor what it was that maid the 
row of peas grow so good, was it 
moon, organic, or prayer, he said 
yes it was all 3 but the main reason 
is Uncle Zeke didn't plant them down 
hear at Elsewhere which has bin 
under 1 foot of water from the Miss. 
Ohio & Mo. rivers for weeks. Also all 
I am girting from my garden is cat- 
fish and sumtimes pearch and drums 
which is better than nuthing but I 
shure wood like to have me a mess 
of green onions, new peas, lettis, 
and greens but no hope in site be- 
fore maybe Aug." — Your Editors 


I do enjoy H. Clutter and his 
Letters from Elsewhere — and I do 
miss his items, "hand wrote" or 

Together is completely "put 
together." I enjoy the articles, 
pictures, and especially Open Pulpit, 
from which I occasionally borrow a 
few lines or read in its entirety to 

my church-school class — with 
proper credit, of course. 

I am in the hospital and 
enjoying the April issue. 

Hampton, Va. 


Thinking that I could surely 
trust your TV listings to suggest a 
decent show, I chose the March 16 
special, Acts of Love and Other 
Comedies [April, page 47]. Well! 
The first 30 minutes of it were more 
than enough. What kind of standards 
does your staff set up to determine 
what shows are right for your 
subscribers to watch? 

Grafton, W.Va. 

We're sorry you were distressed 
by our listing. It is not possible for 
Together's editors to preview tele- 
vision programs themselves. We must 
rely on information provided by the 
networks in selecting shows for our 
lists. The advance information in this 
case indicated a different type of 
comedy. — Your Editors 


Together, like all Christian 
magazines, has some very good 
articles and some with which I 
cannot agree. One of the latter is 
How Can I Know I've Been Saved? 
by Maida Dugan [April, page 22]. 

I pray that this dear lady has 
at some time felt the need and the 
desire to ask Jesus Christ into her 
heart and life and by faith accept 
him as her personal Lord and Savior. 

My complaint, however, is not 
with Mrs. Dugan. I fail to understand 
how an article such as this was 
printed in a Christian magazine that 
is read by thousands of people, 
many of whom are church members 
who attend regularly and work 
diligently in the church. They see no 
need in their lives because they were 
born into Christian homes, their 
parents and grandparents were 
Christians, and they have always 
gone to church. They sit in the pews 
each week hardly listening to the 
preaching because they are content 
and see no further needs — the 
preaching is for others. 

Even non-Christians see needs in 
church people. I am not judging; 
neither am I blind. 

My Bible says, "You must be born 
anew" (John 3:7). Praise God! I 

What happened when 
a familys world 
fell off its axis. 


O Susan! 

James W. Angell 

A pastor writes of 
his family's agony 
of honestly confront- 
ing a deep personal 
tragedy when their daughter dies, 
and their search for sources of 
courage. Not the least of God's 
healing instruments were friends' 
letters of sympathy and counsel — 
many of which are included. 

Here is a gentle book of solace for 
grief-stricken families and for 
friends wishing to give meaningful 

Clothbound $4.95 

At your bookstore 


P.O. Box 2499 • Anderson, Indiana 46011 


Tables, Chairs, Trucks 


Write to: 


259 Church St, Colfax, Iowa 50054 


Outstanding Charismatic Leaders 

Testimonies, Sermons, Teachings 

Inspirational Tape Club offers you the oppor- 
tunity to buy hundreds of never-before avail- 
able tapes. No obligation to buy any tapes 
. . . but you're kept up to date with reviews 
of new ones which become available each 

Introductory membership only $1 ... for 
which you also receive the late Peter Mar- 
shall's "Things I Know" . . . now a col- 
lector's item. 

Send $1 with your name and address to: 
Inspirational Tape Club, Dept. T 151, 41 East 
Main St., Mesa, Arixona 85201. 

July 1973 TOGETHER 39 

believe that every born-again 
Christian has a personal relationship 
with his Savior and an absolute 
assurance of salvation. 

I am so grateful that the Lord 
spoke to my heart and put a great 
desire in me to know him. As I 
surrendered myself to him, he gave 
me such joy and peace — not a 
"hope so" or "think so" salvation 
but a "know so" salvation. 

Since the Holy Spirit came to 
dwell within, I have been gloriously 
filled with the wonderful love of God. 
Loving is as natural as breathing, 
and the more this love is shared, the 
more there is to share. 

Sandoval, III. 


Maida Dugan's heartwarming 
How Can / Know I've Been Saved? 
is such a refreshing contrast to 
much that deals with the subject. 
Some Christians are like devout, 
sincere Pharisees of Jesus' time who 
were so sure that only they were 

Fortunately there are many 
different ways, as Mrs. Dugan 
indicates, in which God makes it 
possible for the individual to 
experience his saving grace. I 
began preaching in 1926. Since that 
time there have been countless 
soul-testing experiences shared with 
parishioners, in addition to long, 
personal struggles with illness, that 
have tested me to the limits of my 
strength and faith, but these have 
helped to give my ministry relevance. 
Even today my prayers are often in 
the spirit of Mark 9:24 [NEB]: "I 
have faith, . . . help me where 
faith falls short." 

DALLAS McNEIL, Ret. Minister 
Portland, Oreg. 


I've just finished reading for the 
second time How Can / Know I've 
Been Saved? and to Maida Dugan 
I say, Right on! 

I'm very tired of people pushing 
me about whether or not I am 
"saved." Mrs. Dugan's idea of 
salvation is an answer to my 
prayers. I am reminded of the hymn, 
"Spirit of God ... I ask no dream, 
no prophet ecstasies." 

Thank you so much, Mrs. Dugan, 

"I'm not giving these to 

Joey — I'm swapping them 

for his six kittens." 

for what I feel is a down-to-earth 
and refreshing answer to an age-old, 
tired-out question. 

Chesterland, Ohio 


With great interest I read Our 
Overseas Missions: Are We 
Retrenching or Retooling? [April, 
page 18]. (I served the Methodist 
Church in India as a lay preacher 
from 1929 to 1953, when I was 
ordained. My last charge before 
leaving India in 1960 was the 
Hyderabad Central Church. During 
this time I knew the Seamands 
family well.) 

It is regrettable that Professor Holt 
did not answer the real issue raised 
by Dr. Seamands: the new theology 
of missions that has been developed 
by our missions board, a theology 
which ignores the matter of personal 

To send missionaries into the 
foreign or home field who cannot 
win souls to Christ is what Helmut 
Thielicke would call bad hunting: 
"A hunter who is out to shoot the 
stag lets the rabbits go; otherwise he 
will drive away the stag. So in 
hunting and in preaching one must 
know what one is after, and then 
one must concentrate on that." 

The real duty of evangelism is not 
intellectual assent or social action 
but having the blessed assurance of 
having accepted Jesus; then his love 
and strength gives motivation 
to all else. 


Thetford Center-Union Village 

United Methodist Churches 

Union Village, Vt. 


If the News Is Good by Ann 
Weems [April, page 48] is thought- 
provoking and inspirational. I shall 
use it as a basis for a meditation I 
am scheduled to give. The prose 
poem asks interesting questions 
and gives us jubilant suggestions. 

Thanks millions! 

Magalia, Calif. 


I am returning this very ugly 
picture [April, page 49, which 
illustrated If the News Is Good]. 
I don't want it! It looks like the work 
of an itinerant hippie. 

Be careful! In trying to modernize, 
you may lose your Methodist soul. 

Pomona, Calif. 


I am wondering just how you can 
improve Together by changing the 
format. [See New Magazine Will 
Replace Together in '74, May, page 
1 1 .] I have been so pleased to 
have the splendid magazine and 
am really shocked to know that 
anyone would want to make any 
changes. You have presented so many 
good things that truth-seeking 
people need in this age. 

Portsvi7.e, Ark. 

Last month's Viewpoint statement, 
Why United Methodists Today? (page 
1) explained why changes in the 
church's general periodicals program 
are necessary. We're gratified, 
though, that Mrs. Porter and others 
have expressed regret at Together'* 
passing. — Your Editors 


Cover and Cover Two — Lynwood M. Chace 

• Pages 4-5 — Carl E. Crimm, M.D • 11-12-13— 

Paige Carlin • 16 — From An Album of Methodist 
History by Elmer T Clark • 23 — Orville Andrews 

• 25 Top — Melvin E. West • 27 — Illustration by 
A. and M. Provensen from The lord Jesus by Sis- 
ters Mary Johnice and Mary Elizabeth, courtesy of 
Allyn and Bacon, Inc. • 34 — Cameramen, Inc. 

• 42 — Copyright © 1972 by Euro International 
Spa • 45 Top — Courtesy of TRAFCO, Bol. — Toge 
Fujihira, courtesy of the Board of Global Min- 
istries • 49— W G. Howell • 21-24-25 Bot. -30-31- 
32— George P. Miller. 

40 July 1973 TOGETHER 

^>nly the author of 
he Taite of 


could Write this book 

f you are ready 
o look beyond 
»at answers 
ind platitudes 
. . then you 
ire ready for 


your favorite bookstore 


W books 


\f This book will change the life and language 
\ of the church for decades to come. 


In the style of openness and honesty you've come to expect from Keith Miller, 

tackles questions that perplex concerned Christians 

— With all the loneliness, the restlessness, the incompleteness in the 
world, why is it so hard for people to really hear my witness? 

— How can I penetrate people's protective insulation and communicate 
my faith? 

— How do my needs shape my thinking and behavior? 

— What is conversion . . . really, and how does it happen? 

— How do I discover . . . and become all I was meant to be? 

For those willing to risk themselves and their securities — and reach out 
to God, here is an adventure in spiritual freedom, an invitation to renew- 
ed hope, to growing again . . . and a whole new way to help others 
discover your life in Christ. 



THE BECOMERS .. let it change your life 

July 1973 TOGETHER 41 

Francis of Assisi: 

Troubadour of Dawn 

By Thomas Orrin Bentz 

ONCE UPON a time a boy went to war and was 
wounded. When he awoke, he felt afresh the sun, 
the flight of a bird, the simplicity of a flower, and 
the direction of a hilltop poplar pointing toward heaven. 

The time was A.D. 1200, at the turn from the Dark 
Ages of guarded fortresses toward the light of individual 
discovery. The boy was Francis Bernardone, who left his 
father's dry goods business, clothes, and name to become 
a beggar, servant, and singer in the spirit of Jesus. 

Brother Sun, Sisler Moon brings his spirit to the screen 
through the lens of director Franco Zeffirelli. With an 
eye for beauty, which is the blessing of having been born 
in I lorence, Zeffirelli re-creates his vision of the saint 
from nearby Assisi whom he has admired since child- 
hood. The result is so bountiful a natural bouquet that 
Francis and Clare almost dissolve into a fairylandscape. 

"Tuscany is really like fairyland," Graham Faulkner 
confessed to me, reflecting on his film debut as Saint 
Francis. "Stunning castles, cypress and olive trees dot the 

"Assisi is lovely," adds the enchanting )udi Bowker 

An Interchurch Feature originated by A.D. (United 
Church of Christ and The United Presbyterian Church in 
the U.S.A.). Copyright 1973 by the A.D. Publishing Com- 
mittee Used by permission. 

who plays her first film role as Saint Clare. "When we 
arrived, the town was bathed in a sunset, glowing pink 
against the hills." 

Director Zeffirelli makes no appology for the attractive- 
ness of his landscape or his stars. Instead, he enwraps 
the picture with the captivatingly simple music of folk- 
guitarist Donovan. 

Among the troubadours of his age who roamed through 
northern Italy, the minstrel Francis composed poems in 
the dialect of his day and set them to popular tunes. 
Donovan composed the music for Brother Sun from 
fragments of 12th-century songs that were familiar to 

Out of context, a few lyrics fall from simple to 
simplistic. ("Birds are singing sweet and low from the 
trees that gently grow; to the meadow there go I to 
wander as the butterfly.") But within the film, music 
flows through and between the scenes like a statement 
of faith. As Francis, barefoot in winter and abandoned, 
begins the stone-by-stone reconstruction of the Chapel 
of San Damiano, Donovan sings: "If you want your dream 
to be, build it slow and surely . . . Do few things but do 
them well: heartfelt joys are holy." Later the poor folk 
fill the completed chapel and echo the same chorus. 

You may leave the theater singing one of the tunes 
as I did, wondering whether the film might have been too 


July 1971 TOGITH1 K 

A director's thoughts on his film 

Italian film director Franco Zeffirelli has been 
best known for his widely acclaimed Romeo and 
Juliet. He worked four years on Brother Sun, 
Sister Moon and spent more than a year on loca- 
tion in Italy with its cast. "I tried to avoid intellec- 
tualizing it. It's simple," he says. He hopes that, 
as a result, it will appeal to all people, young and 
old, Christian and non-Christian. 

The director also shared these thoughts with 
interviewer Bentz: 

Fairy Tale of Francis. "I could not follow an exact 
biography of the saint because all we have are 
legends. So I adopted a fairy-tale style to heighten 
aesthetic and spiritual values and offer a very 
simple story." 

Carnival of Beauty. "To Francis beauty was every- 
where — a blade of grass, an ant — the humblest 
creature revealed the Creator. Today people rebel 
against the indigestion of beauty in the past. See- 
ing something beautiful almost hurts. Ugliness re- 
flects on our souls. Some people say this film is 
a carnival of fake beauty. Yet Francis was the most 
handsome boy in town. Clare was a pretty girl. 
And the natural scenes around Assisi are real. You 
don't need to go miles away to find beauty. There 
is staggering beauty even in the city. It is still under 
the reach of your hands." 

Paul, the Politician. "By spotting Christianity as the 
philosophy that could conquer the world, the 
apostle Paul made the church political and damaged 
the Word of Christ. When you build power around 
an idea, you crush it. From 'blessed be the poor in 
spirit' came cruel, ruthless emperors." 

Man on the Mount. "Jesus showed the sensational 
courage of one man to go into the wilderness, 
mature, and then say exactly the right words at the 
right time, person to person. But we do not under- 
stand his words. We start with a preacher on a 
mountain and end up with the Vatican in Rome. 
So I ended the film before Francis and his followers 
became political." □ 

beautiful to believe. We cannot deny the natural setting; 
it is there. We cannot discredit the music; the tunes are 
authentic and the words are in the happily humble sense 
of Francis. 

We may wish to fault Zeffirelli for not showing more 
— he did not include the Franciscan order in operation 
or the saint's loss of control, suffering, and death. But 
he did not intend a full life of Francis. He sought only 
a taste of innocence and the joy of finding a simple, 
single purpose in life and following it. 

Brother Sun, Sister Moon is a painful film if you take 
it personally. As Donovan sings in a scene among the 
sick: "There's a pain on the land weakening me; there's 
a sigh in the city of sorrow; there's a shadow of dark- 

ness accumulating; and I feel that it's coming our way." 
Before the bishop of Assisi, Francis cried: "I want to 
recapture my soul. I want to feel the firm grasp of the 
earth beneath my feet, without shoes, without posses- 
sions, without those shadows we call our servants." 

Becoming a brother to all the humble creatures of 
God, he touched the pain of the ill and heard the refrain: 
"There's a shape in the sky beckoning me; there's a 
sound in the wild wind calling; there's a song to be 
sung for glory; and I feel that it's coming our way." 

Strength in suffering, joy in service, abundance in 
poverty — this is the way of Jesus and the life of Francis. 
Brother Sun, Sister Moon is a vision of life for the glory 
of God. 

The New Woman. Francis was not the only one in Assisi 
with an eye to something new. Clare, rich and pretty, 
was born into a noble family, received the best educa- 
tion, and was promised to a knight when she was 16. 
She refused to marry him and, instead, focused her 
attention on caring for lepers and orphans. Her outreach 
and kindness toward others led to secret meetings at 
night with the publicly banished Francis. Finally she for- 
sook her family, broke out of her predetermined place 
in society, and followed Francis into poverty. Pope 
Alexander IV called the founder of the Poor Clares "the 
New Woman, who poured forth a fountain of living 
water to thirsty souls." 

The Privilege of Poverty. Called the Little Poor One by 
his contemporaries, Francis also saw the gospel as his 
form of life and wrote: "I, your little servant, pray and 
implore you through the love which is God, to gather 
these fragrant words of our Lord Jesus Christ with 
humility, put them into practice, and observe them 
perfectly, for they are spirit and life." 

Placing intellectual poverty beside material poverty, 
Francis threw out a group of his friars who had set up 
a house of study. The Bible was the only Word needed 
for one who lived the gospel daily. 

God Is Best. A brother to all creatures, Francis looked 
at the world in a new light. He was able to call Clare 
a brother and himself a mother of the Spirit of Christ. 
Sex was unimportant in the unity of life. Living things 
were not objects but brothers and sisters. A saint for 
ecologists, Francis allowed man no dominion over na- 
ture, but said, "God, who created us, is best." All the 
rest of us reflect his glory and sing his praise. 

May the Lord Give You Peace. Surrounded by civil wars 
and religious Crusades, the Little Brother decided, "The 
true peacemakers are those who for the love of God in 
the midst of every adversity in this world conserve peace 
in their soul and body." 

Greeting everyone he met with the wish, "May the 
Lord give you peace," he was determined to do more. 
After organizing a peace movement called the Great 
Hallelujah, he preached, unarmed, to the crusaders and 
carried his living gospel to the sultan of Egypt. 

Near the end of his life, the ailing Francis told Clare: 
"If a person is killed at the other end of the earth, we 
are killed. Either we shall all be saved, all of us together, 
or else we shall all be damned." □ 

July 1973 TOGETHER 43 


A Christian focus on the visions of reality and illusion 
that reach us through broadcasting, music, the theater, 
print, and other art forms. 


Two films made by and for the church are being seen 
by United Methodists this summer, and they have some 
interesting similarities. 

Both films deal with struggle. Both were produced by 
members of the group for whom they speak. Both were 
made by United Methodists but are being used by groups 
in other denominations as well. And both have amen 
in their titles. 

The 15-minute color motion picture Women, Amen! 
is concerned with women's role in the church and 
women's struggle to realize their full potential in the 
Christian community. Made as a major study resource 
for the United Methodist Women's missions-study theme, 
Women: Over Half the Earth's People, it is being seen 
this summer by women at regional and conference 
schools of Christian mission and is expected to be a 
continuing resource for women's groups inside and out- 
side of United Methodism. Women from other denomina- 
tions were included on the special advisory committee 
that was associated with its production. 

Let the Church Say Amen is a 60-minute color docu- 
mentary film about the black church and its role in the 
black liberation struggle. Although it was made primarily 
for black congregations and other black groups, 
numerous white church people are seeing it as well. 

We're told that the use of amen in both film titles 
was merely coincidence, but it's no accident that except 
for one lone man everybody associated with the pro- 
duction of Women, Amen! were women — or that all 
those involved in initiating and producing Let the Church 
Say Amen were black. In both cases it was planned 
that way. 

Let the Church Say Amen was initiated by an ad hoc 
committee composed of black executives from national 
United Methodist boards and representatives of Black 
Methodists for Church Renewal. Executive producer of 
the film was the Rev. David W. Briddell, assistant general 
secretary of the Board of Global Ministries' Division of 
Education and Cultivation. Emmy Award-winning black 
film maker St. Clair Bourne wrote and directed it, and 
it was made by Mr. Bourne's own production company, 
Chamba Productions. 

II focuses on a young black seminarian, Hudson 
(Dusty) Barksdale, who is struggling with his blackness 
and the new black interpretation of Christian theology. 
It finds him at the Interdenominational Theological 
Center in Atlanta, Ga., where he is a student, and follows 

him to a field assignment as a student pastor at St. 
Matthew United Methodist Church, an inner-city black 
church within the shadow of Chicago's skyscrapers. 

On his way to this assignment he visits the all-black 
Mississippi Delta town of Mound Bayou to study black 
church life there. While he is there, we see him at a 
Sunday church service of the kind that is so traditional 
in black country churches throughout the South. At 
St. Matthew he finds a progressive minister, a warm but 
uncertain and searching congregation, and incidents that 
force the entire congregation to question its mission in 
the context of the black liberation struggle. 

This film, David Briddell says, isn't supposed to portray 
a "typical black church because there is no such thing." 
Nor is Let the Church Say Amen a definitive statement 
of what the black church has been. Rather, it highlights 
a part of the struggle to create a meaningful black 
church today. 

On the ad hoc committee were representatives of 
Black Methodists for Church Renewal, the Board of 
Discipleship, the Commission on Religion and Race, the 
Board of Global Ministries, the Board of Church and 
Society, and the Television, Radio and Film Communica- 
tion section (TRAFCO) of the Joint Committee on Com- 

Let the Church Say Amen is an unscripted report of 
actual events, and the people in it are real people — not 
actors playing parts. Women, Amen!, too, features real 
people — three women living in or near Plainfield, N.J., 
who are trying in different ways to realize their full 
potential in the church. 

Clarice Howe, married and the mother of children 
now grown, was one of the first women her church 
ever elected to its board of trustees. Trusteeship, in fact, 
is a rare post for a woman to hold in most churches. 
Women, Amen! gives us Clarice Howe in a meeting 
defending the women's position on the trustee issue. 
We see her working with retarded children (she has 
spent untold hours in volunteer service to both church 
and community), and we hear her talk about the women's 
movement. She says she isn't sure she's a feminist, but 
she does approve of most of the goals feminists are 
working toward. 

Nancy Bahmueller-Gard is a seminary student at Drew 
University. She wants to become an ordained minister 
and specialize in helping women in crisis situations. 
Participating in a women's consciousness-raising group 
helped point her to this course. She had joined the 
group because she felt she wasn't totally fulfilled as a 
wife or mother or satisfied working as a Christian educa- 
tor. As a seminary student, she is serving as a hospital 
chaplain, and in Women, Amen! we see her conducting 
worship services in a hospital and counseling hospital 
patients. We see her taking part in a consciousness- 
raising meeting. And we see her in a conversation with 
her friend and former professor, Nelle Morton. 

44 July 1973 TOGETHER 

At the same time an 

all-woman crew was making 

Women, Amen! for United 

Methodist Women to use as a 

missions-study resource, an 

all-black production team was 

filming Let the Church Say 

Amen, which reflects the 

struggle to create a black 

church that is meaningful for 

today. Above, in Plainfield, N.j., 

Juliana Wang considers the 

possibilities in a scene 

she is getting ready to shoot 

for Women, Amen! 

Below, St. Clair Bourne, 

director of Let the Church Say 

Amen, blocks out a sequence 

with cameraman Rufus Hinton 

as they shoot the part 

of the film that takes place 

at the Interdenominational 

Theological Center in 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. Morton is a Drew professor emeritus who still 
teaches a course on women in church and society. She 
is deeply involved in searching out biblical and historical 
sources that give women their full recognition. She can 
tell you, for instance, about early Greek biblical manu- 
scripts that say "let anyone" or "children of God" in- 
stead of "let any man" or "sons of God." 

The man on the production roster of Women, Amen! 
was Dr. Harry C. Spencer, associate executive secretary 
of TRAFCO. He was the film's executive producer. 
Otherwise, it was all women: TRAFCO producer Kay 
Henderson; film and television writer-director Marianna 

Norris, who served as producer-director-writer; cinema- 
tographer Juliana Wang; Marian Hunter, Marta Vivas, 
and Pat Bertozzi of Herstory Films, Inc.; and Ellen Kirby 
and Beverly Chain of the Board of Global Ministries, who 
were consultants. Women, Amen! was financed by 
TRAFCO and developed in consultation with the 
Women's Division of the Board of Global Ministries. 

Both films are available for rental through Cokesbury 
— Let the Church Say Amen for $25, Women, Amen! for 
$15. A study-discussion guide is available with Women, 
Amen! Let the Church Say Amen can be obtained, also, 
through some annual conference audio-visual libraries 

July 1973 TOGETHER 45 

A tiny 



Think so? We hear a lot about 
lakes dying. Entropy they call 
it. When pollution reaches a 
certain level, it can't be 
reversed. That's what bribes 
do. Contribute to moral pollu- 
tion. Trust turns to sewage in 
the community of man. You 
know what to do about it. 

The community of man 
God's club. 
It's not exclusive. 
It includes you and me. 



•dv»n.».ng contributed for th* public good 

and through the Interdenominational 
Theological Center (671 Beckwith St. 
SW, Atlanta, Ga. 30314). 

Franco Zeffirelli's film Brother Sun, 
Sister Moon, which is reviewed for 
Together's readers by Thomas Orrin 
Bentz in Francis of Assisi: Troubadour 
of Dawn [see page 42 of this issue], 
got one favorable, four mixed, and 
nine negative reviews from New York 
City film critics. Vincent Canby of 
the Times went so far as to call it 
"a big, absurd doodad," while Kath- 
leen Carroll of the Daily News 
summed it up as "a pretty but pale 
flower of a film." 

Most of this magazine's readers 
will probably side with the New 
York Franciscan Fathers, though. They 
were happy with the film. 


"Indeed the Holy Places, like the 
Four Gospels, have the unique power 
to help us know Christ better and to 
place us in the presence of the 
mystery of His life and His death," 
writes Friar Ignazio Mancini in the 
preface to The Fifth Gospel: A Para- 
ble About the Land of Christ 
(Prentice-Hall, $15). 

Friar Mancini, who was this 
absorbing book's general editor, and 
its author, Friar Godfrey Kloetzli, had 
the help of an interfaith committee 
in creating a unique exploration of 
how Israel shaped the thoughts and 
life of Christ and how events of 
Christ's life, in turn, left their mark 
upon the land. 

The strong photography is the work 
of American-born photographer El- 
liott Faye, who emigrated to Israel 
in 1970. Laura Faye Taxel wrote the 
parable captions that go with the 

It all adds up to an informative 
and inspiring book, and you may find 
it is good correlative reading to The 
2,000th Year [see page 26]. 

"Dear Lord, 

I have been chastised — 

and by a little old lady who had 
the audacity to turn off her 
hearing aid in the midst of my 
argument. . . ." 
Writing as one woman, Jo Carr and 
Imogene Sorley voice the day-to-day 

thoughts of many women in Plum 
Jelly and Stained Glass & Other 
Prayers (Abingdon, $2.75). 

I believe firmly that when you talk 
to God you should use your own 
words, but I found it natural to join 
in these prayers. As they express 
frustration, delight, thanksgiving, in- 
security, contentment, yearning, or 
other states of the human mind and 
heart, they are honest, soul-searching, 
not self-conscious, and deeply re- 

Take one church mouse named 
Arthur who brought all the mice in 
town to live in the church with him 
because he was lonely, one benevo- 
lent cat named Sampson who had 
heard so many sermons about the 
meek being blessed that he even 
baby-sat for the mice, one parson 
who agreed to feed the mice if they 
would keep the church clean, and a 
congregation that got so used to 
them that members let mice polish 
their shoes while they sat in church 

Add one nightmare for Sampson 
and one burglar for the mice and 
Sampson to catch, and you have one 
of the funniest children's books ever. 
If there aren't any children in your 
house, read The Church Mouse 
(Atheneum, $5.95) anyway. Our staff 
here loves it. Its illustrator and author 
is Graham Oakley, a scenery designer 
for BBC television. He has illustrated 
many books for children, but this is 
the first book that he has written as 
well. We hope there'll be many more. 


The Blue Ridge Broadcasting Cor- 
poration, of which evangelist Billy 
Graham is president, has approved a 
plan to drop all commercials on its 
radio stations WFGM and WMIT-FM 
and to operate the stations under an 
entirely religious format. Contribu- 
tions will be solicited to help meet 
the $175,000 a year it costs to oper- 
ate the stations. 

46 )uly 1973 TOGETHER 



Explo '73 is a new weekly tele- 
vision series produced by Campus 
Crusade for Christ International. It 
is being aired in nine major cities. 
The 30-minute programs include 
music, interviews, testimonies, and a 
special weekly feature highlighting 
news taking place in the Christian 
community all over the world. Bill 
Bright, founder and president of 
the worldwide, interdenominational 
movement, is hosting the series. 

Stations carrying it include KHOF- 
TV, Los Angeles; WHAE-TV, Atlanta; 
KPAZ-TV, Phoenix; WBMG-TV, Bir- 
mingham; WZZM-TV, Grand Rapids; 
WBNS-TV, Columbus, Ohio; KCST- 
TV, San Diego; WLAC-TV, Nashville; 
and WOI-TV, Des Moines. Campus 
Crusade hopes to expand the list as 
time goes on. "Our objective is to 
expose men and women everywhere 
to the gospel and to mobilize and 
train millions of Christians to help 
carry the message of Jesus Christ to 
the entire world," says Dr. Bright. 

Summe Specials 

Special network programming in 
July puts the emphasis on news. 

On July 8, CBS presents its first 
CBS News Retrospective. This 12- 
week series on Sundays at 6-7 p.m. 
offers a second look at some of the 
pioneering CBS documentaries de- 
veloped during the 1950s and 1960s. 

July 5 from 8-9 p.m. an ABC 
News special The Essential Freedom 
analyzes the current dispute over 
press freedom, going back to the 
Sedition Trials of the 1790s to give it 
historical background. 

Other network specials include: 

July 3 on NBC, 10-11 p.m. Stars and 
Stripes Forever. A frankly patriotic pro- 
gram. Bob Hope heads its list of stars. 

July 10 on NBC, 10-11 p.m. NBC Re- 
ports: The Sinai. A study of the people, 
places, and politics of the Sinai Peninsula. 

July 27 on ABC, 9-9:30 p.m. ABC News: 
POWs, The Black Homecoming. Report 
on the black POWs and how their future 
looks now that they are home. 

All times listed here are Eastern Day- 
light Time. Scheduling often is changed, 
so check your local listings for possible 
changes and additions. 

— Helen Johnson 




"Sour godliness if the devil's religion" 


Our acolytes are asked to mem- 
orize a brief prayer to say, with 
bowed head, before lighting the 
first candle and again after lighting 
the last, then to do the same be- 
fore and after extinguishing them. 

One of the women-in-charge 
regularly talks with the boys to 
see if they fully understand what 
they are doing. She was startled 
and amused when one acolyte, 
asked if he always used the prayer 
while his head is bowed, replied, 
"I don't use the prayer, but I do 
count to ten." 

— The Rev. Howard A. Kuhnle 
Buffalo, N.Y. 

While serving a church in Mid- 
land, Ky., I was conducting an 
informal study on the parables. I 
asked a young boy to stand and 
tell a parable in his own words. 

"This man was going to town 
and some crooks beat him up and 
left him for dead," he said. "A 
couple of men came by and saw 
him, but they wouldn't help. Fi- 
nally this one nice guy came along 
and helped him out." 

"That's great!" I told him. 
"What's the name of the parable?" 

He looked puzzled so I gave 
a hint: "It's the name of one of 
the hospitals in Lexington." 

Immediately his face lit up and, 
with assurance, he said, "Central 

— The Rev. Terry L. Faris 
Williamsburg, Ky. 

Don't just laugh at the next church- 
related chuckle you hear. )ot it down 
on a postcard and send it to Together. 
If we use it, you'll be $5 richer. But 
no stamps please; we can't return 
those not accepted. — Your Editors 



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The CLASSIFIED section of TOGETHER magazine is 
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and to help subscribers. Standard categories only. No 
Agents Wanted or Fund Raising advertising. Advertise- 
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pews, baptismal font, excellent condition, 3 
rank Wick's Pipe Organ. Main Street United 
Methodist Church, 1400 Main Street, Alton, 
Illinois 62002. 


unteer your skills & experience in develop- 
ing nations overseas and U. S. Join the 
universal struggle for human dignity — through 
education, skilled trades, agriculture, engineer- 
ing, business, urban planning, medicine & 
other fields of community development. One 
or two years. Expenses paid — medical, travel, 
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director, and director. Experience d wit h 
graded choirs. Recitelist. Write: TOGETHER 
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ville, Tennessee 37202. 

July 1973 TOGETHER 47 

Do Bumblebees Have Faces? 

CHILDREN approach things dif- 
ferently and, as a result, are 
more original, more practical, 
less complicated, and almost always 
more entertaining than adults. 

But when my four-year-old Peggy 
asked: "Do bumblebees have faces?" 
I was stumped. Being more concerned 
about the business end of a bumble- 
bee, I pondered a long time before 
an appropriate answer occurred to 

Yes, kids ask the darndest things. 
Also, they do the darndest things. 
Take five-year-old Sally, one of my 
Sunday-schoolers, who was given a 
blank piece of paper and some 
crayons and asked to draw something 
pertaining to what she had done the 
previous summer. 

While other little fingers were busy 
with infinite details, Sally slowly drew 
a large circle, then methodically put 
the crayon down and folded her 
arms. She seemed well satisfied with 
her effort when I walked over to 
ask about her picture. 

"It's a swimming pool," she ex- 

"But where are the people?" 

"They've drained the pool," she 
declared with conviction. 

That should have taught me some- 
thing about children's art before I 
asked another class member to ex- 
plain the meaning of the big upside- 
down "U" he had drawn as a Christ- 
mas assignment in Sunday school. 

"It's the three Wise Men."' 

"But I don't see them." 

"Of course not. They're behind that 

Kids also say the darndest things. 
My four-year-old grandson Ben, asked 
to say grace when Grandma was 
visiting, requested that we all stand. 
Then with a dramatic approach that 
would have shamed Richard Burton 
he went through his lines. With the 
"amen" we all raised our heads, and 
little Ben, making a low bow, said: 
"Now clap." 

Kids sometimes say things not in- 
tended for adult ears. Our teen-age 
son Bill, while mowing the pasture 
with the big red tractor, was having 
frustrating difficulties. Tall, tough 
weeds kept clogging the mower until 
finally a blue volcano of maledictions 
against the offending weeds erupted 
from his lips and drifted over to 
where I was hanging laundry. 

"Where have I failed as a mother?" 
I asked myself, wondering what my 

neighbor, a minister's daughter, 
would think of me and mine if she 
heard what Bill had said. 

But little Bobby, my preschooler, 
had heard me thinking out loud. At 
noon, I spoke firmly to Bill about his 

"What if Mrs. Williamson heard 
you use that kind of language," I 
shamed him. 

Helpful Bobby rose and said in 
his best don't-you-worry-mom tone: 
"No, she didn't hear him. I went 
over and asked her." 

Yes, kids approach things differ- 
ently. And as a conscientious mother, 
I'm doing my best to prepare myself 
to answer every question promptly. I 
even have an answer to the bumble- 
bee question, though it didn't occur 
to me until later when I noticed the 
label on a brand of seafood sold in 
our area. It shows a cute Disney-type 
cartoon of a smiling bumblebee. 

So the next time a youngster asks 
me if bumblebees have faces, I'll try 
their methods. I'm going to answer: 
"Go look on a tuna-fish can!" 

— Marion Smyth 


jU I'D IO(,f IMIK 


By Evelyn Tooley Hunt 

Begin with wind — 

wind breathing on the land, 
Whispering life into the mangrove trees, 
Gentling the cypress buds to ecstasies 
Of green, lifting the yucca stalk to stand 

Tall in the salty sand. 

Begin with rain, 
Parting the marshes where the sea has spun 
Long threads of silver, and where seeds have lain, 
Washing the channels where their roots will run. 

Begin with sun — 

day springing out of night, 
Waking the dormant gold of wild jasmine, 
Shaping the orange and the tangerine 
To its own image . . . and to man's delight. 

Praise wind and rain and sun, thou living clod; 
when the prait 



1776-1976 — red, white, black, and yellow — paint 
it the everchanging country we call home. 
These days, just keeping up with the pace of 
events in the local church takes concentrated 
effort. That's where TOGETHER magazine fits 
in, keeping you current on news from and 
about The United Methodist Church in our so- 
ciety. The editors and staff of TOGETHER invite 
you to join us — on lazy summer afternoons, 
at busy bus shelters, even at 4th of July cele- 
brations — for purposes of communication. 

Your TOGETHER subscription will entitle 
ginning in January, 1974. See your agent 
or pastor. Rate $4. 

Place on offering plate or mail to: 

TOGETHER, 201 Eighth Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn. ! 


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